Vojenský služební odznak

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Vojenský služební odznak

Militärdienstzeichen

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    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak Long Service Cross
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Struktura:
    Structure:
    pro důstojníky
    I. třída
    II. třída
    III. třída


    pro poddůstojníky a mužstvo
    I. třída
    II. třída
    III. třída
    for Officers
    1st Class
    2nd Class
    3rd Class


    fot NCO' s and men
    1st Class
    2nd Class
    3rd Class
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    Procházka, Roman von: Österreichisches Ordenshandbuch, München 1974
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#410046Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
     
    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak 1. třída pro důstojníky Long Service Cross Long Service Cross 1st Class for Officers
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen I. Kl. für Offiziere
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Komponenty:
    Components:
    - -
    Klenot:
    Badge:
    - -
    Klenot foto avers:
    Badge Photo Obverse:
    Klenot foto revers:
    Badge Photo Reverse:
    Hvězda:
    Star:
    - -
    Hvězda foto avers:
    Star Photo Obverse:
    -
    Hvězda foto revers:
    Star Photo Reverse:
    Stužka:
    Ribbon Bar:
    - -
    Fotografie:
    Photograph:
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    Procházka, Roman von: Österreichisches Ordenshandbuch, München 1974
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#412438Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
     
    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak II. třída pro důstojníky Long Service Cross 2nd Class for Officers
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen II. Kl. für Offiziere
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Komponenty:
    Components:
    - -
    Klenot:
    Badge:
    - -
    Klenot foto avers:
    Badge Photo Obverse:
    Klenot foto revers:
    Badge Photo Reverse:
    Hvězda:
    Star:
    - -
    Hvězda foto avers:
    Star Photo Obverse:
    -
    Hvězda foto revers:
    Star Photo Reverse:
    Stužka:
    Ribbon Bar:
    - -
    Fotografie:
    Photograph:
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    viz výše
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#410049Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
     
    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak III. třída pro důstojníky Long Service Cross 3rd Class for Officers
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen III. Kl. für Offiziere
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Komponenty:
    Components:
    - -
    Klenot:
    Badge:
    - -
    Klenot foto avers:
    Badge Photo Obverse:
    Klenot foto revers:
    Badge Photo Reverse:
    Hvězda:
    Star:
    - -
    Hvězda foto avers:
    Star Photo Obverse:
    -
    Hvězda foto revers:
    Star Photo Reverse:
    Stužka:
    Ribbon Bar:
    - -
    Fotografie:
    Photograph:
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    viz výše
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#410050Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
     
    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak 1. třída pro poddůstojníky Long Service Cross Long Service Cross 1st Class for NCO
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen I. Kl. für Unteroffiziere
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Komponenty:
    Components:
    - -
    Klenot:
    Badge:
    - -
    Klenot foto avers:
    Badge Photo Obverse:
    Klenot foto revers:
    Badge Photo Reverse:
    Hvězda:
    Star:
    - -
    Hvězda foto avers:
    Star Photo Obverse:
    -
    Hvězda foto revers:
    Star Photo Reverse:
    Stužka:
    Ribbon Bar:
    - -
    Fotografie:
    Photograph:
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    Procházka, Roman von: Österreichisches Ordenshandbuch, München 1974
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#412439Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
     
    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak 2. třída pro poddůstojníky Long Service Cross Long Service Cross 2nd Class for NCO
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen II. Kl. für Unteroffiziere
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Komponenty:
    Components:
    - -
    Klenot:
    Badge:
    - -
    Klenot foto avers:
    Badge Photo Obverse:
    Klenot foto revers:
    Badge Photo Reverse:
    Hvězda:
    Star:
    - -
    Hvězda foto avers:
    Star Photo Obverse:
    -
    Hvězda foto revers:
    Star Photo Reverse:
    Stužka:
    Ribbon Bar:
    - -
    Fotografie:
    Photograph:
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    Procházka, Roman von: Österreichisches Ordenshandbuch, München 1974
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#412440Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
     
    Název:
    Name:
    Vojenský služební odznak 3. třída pro poddůstojníky Long Service Cross Long Service Cross 3rd Class for NCO
    Název v originále:
    Original Name:
    Militärdienstzeichen III. Kl. für Unteroffiziere
    Datum vzniku:
    Date of Establishment:
    19.09.1849
    Datum zániku:
    Date of Termination:
    DD.MM.1918
    Komponenty:
    Components:
    - -
    Klenot:
    Badge:
    - -
    Klenot foto avers:
    Badge Photo Obverse:
    Klenot foto revers:
    Badge Photo Reverse:
    Hvězda:
    Star:
    - -
    Hvězda foto avers:
    Star Photo Obverse:
    -
    Hvězda foto revers:
    Star Photo Reverse:
    Stužka:
    Ribbon Bar:
    - -
    Fotografie:
    Photograph:
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    - -
    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    Procházka, Roman von: Österreichisches Ordenshandbuch, München 1974
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#412441Version : 0
    MOD
    Avatar
    Military služobný badge
    Militärdienstzeichen


    Based cisárom Františkom Jozefom Even. 19.9. 1849 on the proposal of the minister of war.
    Kriz bol right from the začiatku divided into two fundamental troops, and that on the cross dôstojnícke and cross pre poddôstojníkov and team. Badge has the shape of a one-sided isosceles kríža leopoldovského type, so sieťovite zrnitými hands, surrounded by a raised, zošikmenou bar, from the desktop ramien oddelenou perlovaním. Dôstojnícke cross boli zlátené, cross pre poddôstojníkov and team vo farbe metal. In strede kríža sa nachádza medallion určujúci group and the degree of vyznamenania.
    Cross sa wore on zhodných, even prievlečných streamers žltej farby with one wider čiernym pruhom about 5 mm from the okraja ribbons.

    Dôstojnícky cross:
    Udeľoval sa in two triedach

    Also. trieda – 25 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede kríža sa nachádza strieborný cisársky orol prevýšený crown

    II. trieda – 50 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede kríža sa nachádza golden cisársky orol prevýšený crown

    Cross pre poddôstojníkov and team:
    Udeľoval sa self in two triedach

    Also. trieda – 8 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede kríža sa nachádza circular bronze medallion with rímskym your VIII

    II. trieda – 16 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede kríža sa nachádza strieborný a circular medallion flanked by vencom from oak listov with rímskym your XVI

    In nasledujúcich rokoch switched Military služobné cross and ich organizačná štruktúra niekoľkými changes.

    1867 – 1869

    There has been reorganizácii krížov pre poddôstojníkov:

    Also. trieda – 12 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede kríža sa nachádzal circular bronze medallion with rímskym your XII

    II. trieda – 18 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede kríža sa nachádzal circular strieborný medallion flanked by vencom from oak listov with rímskym your XVIII

    Cross sa started nosiť on stuhe trojuholníkovej stuhe in rovnakých farbách, ako this bolo aj dovtedy.

    1869 – 1890

    In 1869 there was opäť to reorganizácii udeľovania krížov pre poddôstojníkov team:

    Also. trieda – 12 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede sa nachádzal a circular medallion flanked by vencom from oak listov with rímskym your XII

    II. trieda – 24 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede sa nachádzal circular strieborný medallion flanked by vencom from oak listov with rímskym your XXIV

    1890 – 1911

    Ďalšia radikálna the change came in 1890. There has been prečíslovaniu tried and dôstojníckym krížom pribudla aj one new.

    Dôstojnícky cross:

    Also. trieda – 50 ročnú aktívnu service
    Perlovanie around kríža bolo nahradená čiernym enamelled pásom so golden cisárskym orlom in the middle. Kriz bol prevýšený pozlátenou cisárskou crown.

    II. trieda – 40 ročnú aktívnu service
    Cross tvarovo zhodný with the krížom even. triedy, but without prevýšenia crown

    III. trieda – 25 ročnú aktívnu service
    Occurred iba to prečíslovaniu triedy, the cross for 25 years sa with the same outfit.

    Cross pre poddôstojníkov and team:

    Also. trieda – 24 ročnú aktívnu service
    Occurred iba to prečíslovaniu triedy,samotnýkrížza24rokov sa with the same outfit

    II. trieda – 12 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede sa nachádza circular bronze medallion without venca with rímskym your XII

    1911 -1913

    There has been doplneniu krížov pre poddôstojníkov and team of novú triedu

    Also. trieda – 24 ročnú aktívnu service

    II. trieda – 12 ročnú aktívnu service

    III. trieda – 6 ročnú aktívnu service
    Celobronzový cross with rímskym your VI

    1913-1918

    To poslednej change occurred in 1913

    Dôstojníci:

    Also. trieda – 50 ročnú aktívnu service
    There has been a change in the form of the crown

    II. trieda – 35 ročnú aktívnu service
    Zníženie number of potrebných odslúžených years – otherwise ostáva all other without changes

    Cross pre poddôstojníkov and team:

    Also. trieda – 20 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede sa nachádza strieborný a circular medallion, flanked by vencom from oak listov with rímskym your XX

    II. trieda – 10 ročnú aktívnu service
    In strede sa nachádza strieborný circular medallion with rímskym your X

    III. trieda – 6 ročnú aktívnu service
    Cross ostáva without changes

    In time 1. svetovej war sa predovšetkým in poddôstojníckych krížov stretávame with the production of náhradného, the so-called vojnového metal.

    Budget number udelených dôstojníckych krížov in rokoch 1890 – 1918:

    Also. trieda - 80 pcs
    II. trieda – 6 200 pcs
    III. trieda – 13 500 pcs

    Source:
    Ivan Koláčný: Orders and decorations of the Habsburg monarchy. Publisher: Militaria, 2006, ISBN: 80-902745-9-5
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere


    1. Klasse, 1849-1890


    Za vojenskou službu, pro důstojníky, 1. třídy, 1849-1890
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere


    2. Klasse, 1849-1890


    Za vojenskou službu, pro důstojníky, 2. třídy, 1849-1890
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    1. Klasse, 1849-1867


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 1. třídy, 1849-1867
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    2. Klasse, 1849-1867


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 2. třídy, 1849-1867
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    1. Klasse, 1867-1890


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 1. třídy, 1867-1890
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    2. Klasse, 1867-1869


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 2. třídy, 1867-1869
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    2. Klasse, 1869-1890


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 2. třídy, 1869-1890
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere


    1. Klasse, 1890-1918


    Za vojenskou službu, pro důstojníky, 1. třídy, 1890-1918
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere


    2. Klasse, 1890-1918


    Za vojenskou službu, pro důstojníky, 2. třídy, 1890-1918
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere


    3. Klasse, 1890-1918


    Za vojenskou službu, pro důstojníky, 3. třídy, 1890-1918
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    1. Klasse, 1890-1913


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 1. třídy, 1890-1813
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    2. Klasse, 1890-1913


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 2. třídy, 1890-1813
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft


    1. Klasse, 1913-1918


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 1. třídy, 1913-1918
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    2. Klasse, 1913-1918


    Za vojenskou službu, pro mužstvo, 2. třídy, 1913-1918
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    Militärdienstzeichen für Mannschaft

    3. Klasse, 1913-1918

    For military service, for team 3. class, 1913-1918.
    URL : https://en.valka.cz/topic/view/25843#183452Version : 0
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    Military staff badge
    how properly it was the translation from the German, is in our terms known under the inaccurate, but more concise name:

    The military service cross.

    This was the young emperor Franz Joseph I., who loved the army uniforms, their soldiers and military life, and at the same time realized, that every officer, noncommissioned officer has the right to mark his uniform in a visible badge (the cross), which would at the same time inform about the time of the service of the emperor and the motherland.

    Literature and historical sources indicate that this idea of he emperor was approved and confirmed on 19. September 1849 (oficielní the publication of the council of 23. November 1849). The emperor at the same time, split the honors on the group:
    - officers
    - noncommissioned officers

    I. The staff of the cross for officers is broken down into two classes, which have a fixed link only on the number of years ' service in the army of His Majesty.

    The military service cross And. class for 25 years of faithful and honest service
    The military service cross II. class for 50 years loyal and good service

    The cross was always handed over after odsloužení needed business years in active service, which was the only condition for the granting of the cross. It is therefore a nárokové honors, which had to be granted without regard to religion, class origins, religion or status of the family in society. For many of the officers entering into the army after 1848, this was the democratic principle welcome the progress in the issuance of the orders and medals of Austria and later the Austro-Hungarian army. It is good to note that the predominantly subalterní the command, but mainly technical table space (artillery, navy) obsazovala druhorozenými synky of the burgher and peasant families, so the army ceases to be the exclusive domain of the ancestral nobility.

    Crosses are sufficiently known and described, and we can just mark that the only markantem is a gold or silver eagle in the middle of the cross, which to us clearly by the number of years the officer served in the army.

    The problem comes at a time when most of the officers bearers of the staff of the cross for 25 years of service and only a small amount of members from the ranks of the highest generality could be proud of the staff of the badge for 50 years ' service. Another problem was that after odsloužení 25 years each and the senior officer, recognized that the wake of the upcoming odsloužení 50 years is reserved for the elect only.

    While it is not known who was the creator of the changes, but on April 5. August 1869 occurs to a substantial change in the appearance of the service of crosses, and at the same time is taken into account the need to appreciate the officers who had performed service to the high and important places in the army of the empire.
    Perhaps it was the very emperor, or someone close of the emperor's surroundings, but the staff of the cross doznávají fundamental change:

    - cross for 50 years of service rests the crown and on the front surface of the cross is black framed
    - cross for 40 years of service with the black borders to mark without the imperial crown
    - cross for 25 years of service

    Was granted to a group of senior officers and thus was set up the cross for 40 years of service. It is certain that such a cross was awarded at the end of the soldier career, but at the same time, are not these cross so extremely rare as a decoration for 50 years length of service in active service.

    Army life, officers, apart from the drill in the army of the German based on the spirit of camaraderie and collegiality. The inside of the regiments have cultivated a lively social life associated with balls, individual and collective liberties in the celebrations, or simple evenings at cards, beer or wine. Perhaps here it will be possible to track down the popular name of these crosses, which are nevkusně referred to as "kořaleční of the cross".

    The truth is that cross made of base metal were just a simple decoration, but among the soldiers it was the distinction popular and with the likes worn on the uniforms. For the protection of the uniforms are the back sides of the crosses, again privately cut tortoise shell, mother-of-pearl, or metal plate. All of this should be the only goal, prevent of dirt uniforms. Such crosses are certainly rare.

    In the seventies 19. century was born the idea to use the back area of the cross for the dedication or quote. Teams of officers and non-commissioned officers considered for the honor paid to his master privately and often klenotnicky groomed cross, which bore the reminder service for the unit. Such a cross are pleased to our collections (see pictures). Over time certain traditions, when the cross zeměbraneckých regiments are smaltovány on the back side of the black and bear the inscription, on the contrary, ordinary army regiments have on the back side of the enamel in green color. The hunting battalions have the back side of the cross usually provided with a white mother-of-pearl, and are added again the appropriate inscription or dedication (see pictures). The cross with the dedication of the patient in the luxurious etujích, which zhotovovali custom made and they are in most cases marked with a logo of the manufacturer. The jeweler or the company, which the cross had produced, however, these etuje ordered from the manufacturer and only in the workshop, indicate the description and logo of your company. We are, therefore, these uniform etuje, which differ only the sign of the cross and the logo of the manufacturer. However, they are always carefully made with silver pantíky and in many cases in a beautiful red skin, but also in green velvet at the hunting of the battalions.

    The inscriptions on the back side of the cross are in most cases carried out in German (the commanding speech of the army), later in the plucích Hungarian is discovering inscriptions in hungary. Rarely we find the cross and in another language. In the collection of the moravian collectors mr Rostislava Ending was saved by the cross 11. infantry regiment (the Sand), where in the green enamel was a Czech inscription, when the fearing units I dedicate this cross to their master. The cross was made of silver and heavily zlacen.

    This division crosses for officers by the end of the monarchy nedoznalo substantial changes. By decision of the council of 7. August 1913 was made the only change. Cross for 40 years of service was still designed for a limited circle of he officers and this regulation reduces the number of years ' service from the original 40 to 35 years of active service. Cross with but different from the original cross and it is not possible to determine whether the terms of the cross for the 40/35 years of service.

    Service kádrového the officer was in the service of a lifetime, but at the same time in some way was service senior officer (from major above) and the service selection board; the officer had to demonstrate the practical application of theoretical knowledge, he had to educate and take care of a career-growth. If not interested, neither army had the interest and the officer usually in the rank of captain goes to the retired with a small contribution for the service.

    Attach to a colleague Maškovi!

    Note:
    I tried to a little bit of a different view on the issue of these crosses, or in the introductory part of their allocation is handled transparently and according to the available literature.

    The pictures are taken from the sales catalogues and private collections of friends and colleagues.

    The literature is listed in the introductory part of the article.

    Edit JRT.

    Sl. kříž za 50 let věrné služby I. typ
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    II. Service cross for non-commissioned officers of the occupation of the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian army .

    This issue is somewhat more complicated in that we are cross awarded for seniority, which in each period somewhat has made me different, but always just the center label, where is the digit, which clearly characterized by the number of years that a midshipman had served in the service of the emperor and in řadech his regiment, his unit. The period of service of the petty officer was tied to the national defence act and the need for replenishment of the army of professional soldiers which is reflected in the numbering or the number of years of seniority petty officer of the profession. Petty officer, then as an officer after the serve a specified number of years ' service could from the army to leave with a small pension ( state employee under the pension ) .

    We divide the cross by period as follows ( according to the In. Měřičky ) .

    - 1848 a group for non-commissioned officers :

    The military service cross. class for VIII. years of service
    The military service cross II. class XVI. years of service

    - the decision of 14. April 1867 :

    The military service cross. class for XII. years of service
    The military service cross II. class XVIII. years of service

    - the decision of 5. August 1869

    The military service cross. class XXIV. years of service
    The military service cross II. class for XII. years of service

    - decision of 28. December 1911

    The military service cross. class XXIV. years of service
    The military service cross II. class for XII. years of service
    Military service cross III. class VI. years of service

    -the decision of 7. August 1913

    The military service cross. class XX. years of service
    The military service cross II. class for X. years of service
    Military service cross III. the degree for VI. years of service

    The distribution of crosses is in accordance with mr. Václav Měřičkou and literature VAM is still available .

    Cross for non-commissioned officers are also often provided on the back side of the white skin, tortoise shell or mother of pearl to prevent or protect the uniforms from possible abrasion and dirt and so as the cross for officers are procured quotes, appointments, etc .-(see examples), here, however, it is possible to generally say, that the latter cross for non-commissioned officers are rarer and ensembles with darovacími etujemi extremely rare .

    Army command, however, respect the fact that a soldier ( civilian) after the serve a given number of years in their position or grade was also awarded even visible if the merit of distinction. As evidence, we will serve the Czech petty officer, who from his comrades received the Silver merit cross complete with quotes, the other a cross with the appointment received from their commanders and ultimately by the service cross for XII. years of service bears appointment and evidence of award of honours in connection with the many years of service with the unit. The study of such crosses you then you better realize and patriotism of these people, who stayed in the difficult war times in the field until the very end of the war and betray my military oath, honor and friends, did not betray themselves .

    Crosses are once again made of common metal and adapted and that in many cases, even gilding. The end of the war, however, discovering a cross made from zinc ( or zinc alloy ), but even these crosses are patinovány gold imitation as evidenced by the picture of the cross for the VI. and X. years of service. In the collections of such cross I am discovering, but not every falerista is willing to accept this fact, then, that in the collection has a decoration in zinc, but the ravages of time took care of the overall nasty appearance .

    We will not describe the individual cross because their production was cheap and therefore there is a confusing number of variants in the design of exceptional quality specimens to specimens plain to the primitive. On the contrary, we will try to cross gradually complement, therefore, to focus the images on one place for simple tv or study ( at will ) .

    Images of crosses are taken from private collections and sales catalogs ..
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    Název
    Name
    Vojenský služební odznak II. třída pro důstojníky
    Long Service Cross 2nd Class for Officers
    Militärdienstzeichen II. Kl. für Offiziere
    Datum udělení
    Date of Issue
    Fotografie
    Photo
    Jméno
    Name
    Stát
    Country
    DD.MM.1849 Radecký z Radče, Jan Josef Václav
    DD.MM.1902 Podhajský, Alois
    01.09.1910 von Böhm-Ermolli, Eduard
    DD.MM.1912 - Kroupa, Josef
    DD.MM.1918 - Wagner, Karel
    17.08.1926 Gebauer, Wilhelm
    Celkem : 6
    .
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    Avatar
    Název
    Name
    Vojenský služební odznak III. třída pro důstojníky
    Long Service Cross 3rd Class for Officers
    Militärdienstzeichen III. Kl. für Offiziere
    Datum udělení
    Date of Issue
    Fotografie
    Photo
    Jméno
    Name
    Stát
    Country
    DD.MM.1902 - Kroupa, Josef
    DD.MM.1905 Drobný, Jan
    DD.MM.1907 Škvor, František
    DD.MM.1908 - Ventour, Bedřich
    DD.MM.1908 - Wagner, Karel
    DD.MM.1912 Podhajský, Alois
    DD.MM.1913 Bílý, Josef
    DD.MM.1914 Weiss, Čeněk
    DD.MM.1918 - Ventour, Bedřich
    DD.MM.RRRR Muhr, Eduard
    Celkem : 10
    .
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