Efforts to convert to and from corrupting the original text of Scripture with the Church of the exception occur for hundreds of years. A great base had these reformist tendencies in France. Late 70s 12th year century wealthy merchant of Lyon Valdes after reading the Bible and examine the Gospel stories about human salvation renounced his wealth and went out into the streets to preach the gospel. Although not religious education, the Church was not just to his liking, he and his followers lyonští Bishop Guichard relatively tolerated, the decision to live in poverty is so bad to anyone. Apart from the requirement of absolute poverty and striving to preach the gospel binding valdenští democratization and freedom of the Church sermons for laymen. Later, when the teachings spread to other parts of Europe, has had an effect on the beginnings of the Hussite movement and the emergence of the Unity of Brethren in Bohemia, where he found many followers. In our region, came up with a handful valdenských Gilles Mersault of Picardy in 1418 and influenced the first radical currents Tabor - hence the name originated pikharti. Conversely, the subsequent Tabor beliefs had an impact on valdenské, who translated the Hussite doctrinal works. With thoughts Valdes found himself up before the Council in order to elicit the right to preach. There are harvested but taunt, being branded a fool and compuphobics. The success was that valdenství was described as heresy. So valdenští find themselves somewhere between the church and the ruling katarstvím.
Groups catarrh in France were called albigenští. Learning to albigenských prevailed mainly in the south of France - around Gascony, Albi Tulouse and fortresses, from which albigenští got its name. Albigenští criticized unnecessary wealth of the Church, but also oppose worldly wealth of the nobility and merchants, thus many of them were on his side. Both large and small nobility Qatari armed learning emboldened to fight against the Church with the intent to enrich himself at the expense of the Church which obviously annoyed, and so learning albigenských condemned and prohibited any contact with these heretics. Still learning albigenských expanded notably during 1179, when they reported the majority of the population of southern France. Albigenští then grew at the same time as valdenští, but sought to distinguish from one another, even when a common enemy, the two religious groups are converging with each other.
Albigenští inspired by dualistic conception of the world, spread from the Byzantine East. Sharp emphasized the difference between good and evil, light and darkness. And body mass was considered good for the soul in prison, freed by Christ, but the man is that everything inside the body umrtvoval. Leaders took this very seriously, marriage, abstain, eat meat dishes and fish off and lived in poverty. Others take care of them in the belief that moral Cathars with its ascetic style of life are more reliable than the morally fallen Catholics. Unable to accept the Incarnation of Christ or the Old Testament of the LORD interest in this world. God of the Old Testament regarded as evil, responsible for the material world. Jesus was a god to them the world a good soul.
After two years learning the albigenských Gascony and inundating the Toulouse region, was summoned to the Synod of Albi. Yet he emerged from that strict dualism, but the extreme emphasis on the New Testament. Exclusively dualistic tendency among albigenské brought bogomilský Niketas leader of Constantinople and the Qatari leader, Mark. Both France convened a large assembly in Qatar Saint Felix de Caramany at Toulouse. Here we have defined the movement, which had a relatively strong structure of the church and perhaps own, nenavazující Rome, consecrated bishops. Support the nobility, who opposed the Church's property too, found mainly on the albigenští estate Viscounts of Béziers. Katarství leaders themselves were regarded as clean and well separated from other supporters. Among the pure and perfect could come only through a ceremony of consolation, which was the baptism of the Spirit baptism and surmounted by the church. Furthermore, the church refused to laws, regulations, luxury, religious cult, the doctrine of the sacraments, altars, crucifixes, holy pictures, and worship. Not recognize or Christ's resurrection in the body because the body is regarded as wicked and perverse as well as sex. The pregnancy was a sin, the woman had said the devil is in the body, and thus had to die before it is born. Suicide was considered a heroic act against the hated body. Disdainful of priests, called a whore of Babylon Rome, bishops antichrists. Preached equality between husband and wife.
In the 14th century in England, he was a reformer John Wycliffe, born in 1324 in the village of Wycliffe York. The scholastic and Oxford-educated professor, among others translated the Bible into English, compare the corruption of the church with biblical standards, denied the divine origin of the papacy, rejected the indulgences, the worship of images, the secular government of the Church, called for secularisation, spiritual return to work and live in poverty. He held the philosophy of pantheism, where everything was God. In his pivotal work Trialog writes: "All nature is God, and every creature is God, or what is God in thought, is God himself, because the idea is a God and can say that God's ass."
Wycliffe erudition with wit has earned him many followers and supporters, who were invited after his death lollardové and proclaim the truth as an itinerant evangelical preachers. Thanks to Czech students at Oxford and the relations with England, with sister's wedding of Wenceslas IV. and the English King Richard II., the teachings of the Lollards came into the Czech lands, where they had a great influence on domestic reformers (Jerome of Prague, Jan Hus). Ideas Wycliffe even caused a split in the University of Prague, Wenceslas IV was. declared heretical, and therefore forbidden to study.
In 1179 in France was held on 3 Fourth Lateran Council in order to mobilize forces against heretics. Pope Alexander III. against albigenským process started in 1181 by the head of the Inquisition has built a proven Marcy Henry Abbot of Clairvaux, promoted to bishop of Albany. The gun was then called on the Catholic armies Langhuedocu Provence and the siege of Fort Lavaur heretical. Valdes before Henry tried to defend the authenticity of his teachings and emphasized the difference between valdenstvím and albigenstvím. Henry not interested in the differences but rather, trying to silence his preaching's. Jindrichuv ideal of the Church lay in the priesthood valdenští government and were therefore still subject to supervision. In 1209, gathered numerous armies of knights, serfs, peasants and townsmen to the crusade against the heretics. (Gradually allegedly participated in expeditions to 20 000 cavalrymen and ten times as many pedestrians.) Daly to march through the valley of the Rhone to the south albigenský. First, there was a siege of the fortress and a fortified town Béziers, whose inhabitants refused to issue a heretic and rallied together to resist the enemy. After the attack on the town burghers moved to St. Mary Magdalene. It soon turned into a bloodbath, when the crusaders spared neither women, children and old men, where there were about seven thousand. The massacre continued to burn throughout the city and the death of approximately 20 thousand residents. Intersecting then proceeded to Fort Carcassone, which fell within a few weeks. The attackers were encouraged to fight and much hrubějšímu nelítostnějšímu as heresy was described as worse than a pagan, a heretic who killed, should be guaranteed the highest place in heaven. Pope Innocent III. also authorized the Norman knight Simon de Montfort, who came to help the increasingly large number of holy warriors. He did not arrest the heretic, but to kill, and so began the rigorous process of attrition. Simon captured the castle in 1210 Braun, but the survivors did not kill - they had cut the ears and gouge his eyes. One left eye that led others to Cabaret, which should bring the fear of God. The crew besieged and conquered the castle Minerva was collected in the meadow, and burned without a trial. In addition, Simon has continued to Lavauru where 80 knights were burned, hanged, Count Roger and his pious sister bricked alive. The remaining 400 civilians were also burned, and the Pope called for these acts of Simon, "a brave Christian gentleman." A year later, the pope and Simon died.
They no longer make distinctions between the heretics, so we also Valdenské. It ended with them the possibility of popular preaching and disputation, the Inquisition and were hunting for heretics marginalized. The best kept in the Alpine valleys of Savoy and Piedmont. Albigenští were so decimated that it practically ceased to exist as a mass phenomenon.
1) De Rosa, P.: Dark papacy, Prague 1997
2) Goll, J. Chelčický and unity, Praha 1916
3) Molnar, A.: Valdenští, Prague 1991
4) Vachal, J.: The Church and dreamers (bludařství sectarianism and History), Prague 2000