Lieutenant Field Marshal Field Emanuel Salomon Baron of Friedberg-Mírohorský
Feldmarschalleutnant Emanuel Salomon Freiherr von Friedberg-Mírohorský
Born on 18th January 1829 in Prague.
Died 10th December 1908 in Prague
In two years, will mark two important anniversaries. In 2008, 100 years elapsed since the final XXVII. essential part of the "Otto's Encyclopaedia"
and also the centenary of the death of one of the major contributors to this groundbreaking work in the Czech culture, interesting man multi-talent, an Austrian soldier and the Czech painter, writer, patriot - Emanuel Salomon Freiherr from Friedberg - Mírohorského
Born on 18th January 1829 in Prague as the only child of his father's first marriage, and economic council tenants Augustine Ignatius of Solomon Friedberg (* 1795 +1870) with violet Theresa (* 1803, +1829) and the baptism in the Church of Our Lady of the Snows in New Town received the name of Emanuel Joseph Francis Charles Augustus. His mother, however, 8 days after his birth (26th 1st 1829) died in childbed. Although she has not therefore have the upbringing of the young Emanuel influence remained there her family, especially when her brother - Uncle Emanuelův - Moritz Violet
(1809 - 1869) undoubtedly influenced by his Czech nationalism and his attitude, behavior and opinions in particular the relationship of Germans and Slavs in the Austrian empire helped shaped the whole future attitude to life of his nephew.
He Moritz Violet
joined after graduating from high school into the army, served in the famous 28th Infantry Regiment, from 1838-1844 he worked as a teacher of Czech language Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt, then with his regiment had tribal fighting in the year 1848-49 in the 1859th That same year he was knighted in 1864 and leaving as a colonel retired. But my nephew was always a role model not only as a deserving officer, but also its national work, corresponding as diligent contributor to many Czech newspapers and magazines, literary and translation activities - přeložil in 1843 into Czech as "new imperial order infantry exercise,"
but in the years 1843-44 among other novel "Oliver Twist"
Ch Dickens and his other works. This love for his native language also reinforced his nephew and he proudly reported from youth to everything Czech. Like in the 17th century, the predicate Salomon latinizován into a "de Monte Pacis,"
Under the influence of consciousness to the Czech nationality of Emanuel Salomon Friedberg počeštil surname to "Mírohorský".
No doubt this influenced him in his high school classmate of Prague in Klementinum Adalbert Fingerhut better known under his later Czech transliteration of his name - Vojta thimble. Like his classmate from Emanuel Salomon Friedberg - Mírohorský he had remarked: "Among his classmates was also especially nice Adalbertus Fingerhut, son of Halánků, honest, healthy, well nourished, agile and willing. Being from a rich house, always used to have pockets full mlsků according to the annual period: chestnuts, eggs hard-boiled, gooseberries, apples, sweet Wood, candies, which often made generous fastidious peers. used to carry food, but also mental particularly nice for all of us, reading Czech, which we devoured it eagerly, because we were always strictly imposed only speak German, although a lot was quite tough. " 7)
For Emanuel Salomon soon manifested its undisputed painter, writer and later language and translation talent and so his whole life is in the symbiosis between the exemplary performance of military duties Austrian officer on the one hand and artistic creation on the other.
Fundamentals of Drawing initially received by Czech painters Jan Kroupa (* 1794, +1875) and Martin Tejčka (* 1780, +1847). Then a young, bright and talented boy in 1837 in the first year of study Old Town Academic Gymnasium in Prague, also attended the Academy of painting and portraiture figuralistickou school director Francis Xavier Academy Tkadlík. Because it is fully occupied by teaching adult students and the young boy does not have much time, his father entrusted him to care Antonin Manes, who at his school taught landscape and his two sons Joseph and Quido. For this teacher went a full academic course and then preserved works show not only great talent, but also the early maturity. Wishful thinking young Emanuel Salomon continue to study painting at the Academy and become a painter but did not allow the father and in 1840 was written eleven year old boy, certainly in consultation with the brother in law, in the second year Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt. (Obr.II)
At that time, work at school as a teacher of Czech language and his uncle, and he continues to cultivate in the young Emanuel Salomon Czech patriotism.
In r.1846 Salomon was eliminated as a Leutnant II. Klasse - Lieutenant II. class, but still remains one more year in the academy at a higher rate, where most recently taught drawing and painting course focusing on the needs of the army. In 1847 the course is like Premiant included in the rank of Leutnant I. Klasse - lieutenant first class to 28 Infantry Regiment "La Tourova"
located in Terezin
. The owner of the regiment from 1832 until his death, Theodore Francis Baillet, Count de La Tour (* 15 6th 1780 Linz - + violent death Oct. 6, 1848 during riots in Vienna).
On vacation in Prague enhances a young lieutenant in the landscape with his former classmate of the elder Mánes school, later Professor Bedrich Havranek - representatives of Mannerism (* January 4, 1821, Prague, +1. March 1899).
In April 1848, took a stormy with the regiment through Plzen, Regensburg, Munich and Innsbruck in rebellious Lombardy - Veneto, where the Radeckým
fought in June when several Adige, and then as a battalion adjutant 23rd July in Sommacampagna, 25 July and 27 at Custozzy July in the Volta, August 4 and then at Milan.
First August was promoted to Oberleutnant and subsequently transferred back to the beginning of August Theresienstadt
Where, however, immediately set off with the 2nd Battalion of his regiment through Prague and Olomouc to rebel Vienna, participating in battles in late October and the final occupation of the city.
From Vienna hits fourth December in the Army Corps Ban Jelacic first to Litavou Most of the insurgent and Hungary, where he fought in the battles of the 16th December at Parendorfu, 30th in the harsh winter December at the Moore, then at 3 January 1849 and 5 Tetín January 1849 came with an army into Budapest.
Other battles he participated in the 14th February and 24 in Tornaľa February at Pétervašára
For gallantry in the two-day bloody battle 26th and 27 February at Kápolny was later awarded the Military Cross of merit with war decorations
and the Russian Order of St. Anne grade 3 with swords.
Another battle will pass the second Hatvan and 5 April 6th at Isaszegu April, at Czinkoty and Pest daily from 8 until 21 dubna 1849th
In June, assigned to the General Staff and thrusted into the Danube army under Haynaue. In the Danubian army participated in the battles of the 28th June at Rab, 2 and July 11 for Komarno, 5 August in Severin and Söregu and 9 August in Timisoara.
It is then finally transferred to the General Staff and crew were in Budapest.
He was not yet even 22.let (!), November 1, 1850 when promoted to Hauptmann II. Klasse - Centurion II. class. He briefly turns the crew in Timisoara, Budapest and back again in Timisoara, in 1853 where he proceeds to Hauptmann I. Klasse - captain first class. In the 50 he was commissioned to paint an army commanded by the emperor for a few scenes from the war in Hungary and therefore in 1851, toured the battlefield with the Hungarian painter Albrecht Adam (* 1786 - +1862) in Munich called to order for the emperor painted genre pictures of several battles.
After completing this task can give their full talent and painting skills in favor of his new military specialty - military cartography, and later as a cartographer at the Vienna Military Geographic Institute (where, however, came only after did a great job in a cartographic terrain in Romanian mountains former Wallachian principality), this excellent starting pay Mappers military mapping in Banat, Vojvodina, Wallachia, Hungary and Venetia.
For example, in 1853 again focused (revised by) there by order of the commanding general of the circuit count Coroniniho srbskobanátského regiment at Old Danube in Moldavia in the former Military Border, and has previously printed general maps of Serbian Vojvodina and Banat Temesského it was rebuilt.
Free time, however, always used to paint and further self-education in this his lifelong hobby. On vacation in Prague exhibited in the Fine Arts Unity (Klementinum) "Scenes from the war in Hungary"
In the spring of 1854 was a member of the General Staff Vršce Wolf Serbian-division corps banátského, soon to be translated into Verona and Prague in the autumn to the first command Corps.
At that time, around 1855, begins to develop his next hobby - literary works, and what later it started to grow it dynamically. Although the art of painting with him was always the first place, after a short time he had "complained": "... though they rarely write and paint constantly and I consider myself more a painter than a writer, yet strangely every person I wrote to the address on the letters "writer" and no one writes "painter "..." 6)
His talent in the field of language, which is already reflected in the study at grammar school and later at Theresian Academy, which has always belonged to the best students, is developing rapidly, and so it becomes a polyglot, controlling vedle mateřské czech more than ten other languages ( although in his autobiography admits modestly lower number). Some of the controls at a level that translates works from English, French and Italian.
Despite the hectic way of military life with the constant moving, corresponds to the first newspaper in Prague, but soon his contributions often supplemented author's illustrations from the environment about which he wrote, knew almost all editors Czech magazines. Readers of his articles directly required, published it in their newspapers and Jan Neruda. His literary work soon began to include more demanding and comprehensive work. For example, he wrote his memoirs, a treatise on warfare, but the dominant work in this period (until 1870) for him to become its active cooperation in the development of " Rieger encyclopedia "(which
was based on 11 pieces from 1859 to 1874). Even the rank of major in it contributed slogans from the military and fine art. He did so under the brand FM
- abbreviated names of the early-Mírohorský Friedberg. Later he discovers that his mark in countless "Otto encyclopedia"
from first to last XXVII. work itself and publisher John Otto his collaboration immensely appreciated. In this climactic lexicon then processes the next to the aforementioned areas as well as passwords and přírodoléčebná area riding. It can rightly be said that along with co-author of military slogans military writer Patrick Blazek
is practically the founder of modern Czech military terminology.
During the summer of 1856 it charted in his government Valašské Fokšan around and drew up the following winter in the Military Geographical Institute in Vienna in the summer things mapped. In the years 1857-58 in Hungary mapped around Dunaföldváru and then was included in the registration office of the General Staff in Vienna and graduation tzv.válečné school. Here, of course, seized the opportunity and attended the Vienna Academy of Painting night school professor PJ Geiger so after its completion, he was also fully absolvovaným academic painter.
In Vienna also exhibited in the Schönbrunnerhause "Scenes from Romania and Hungary"
Before the outbreak of war in 1859 he was transferred to Graz to HQ 6th Corps, with its headquarters are relocated to Linz.
There is in May was promoted to the rank of Major, is in August and then translated into the first tent Army Corps to Ljubljana in November in the main tent II. Verona army under the command of Count August Degenfeld and later under the command of Benedek
Here in Verona on 10 10th 1860 in thirty years, married a native of Prague - the daughter of Colonel Rudolph of Imperial Friess - Mary Rudolph noblewoman from Friess.
In 1860-61 it is again employed in describing the military and had to work the region between the Mincio and the Adige, and then between Talmentem (Tagliamento) and SoCo.
From August 1861 to May 1862 was Chief of Staff at Headquarters Fort Mantua, then again active in the main tent II. Army in Verona. In 1864 he is promoted to the rank of Oberstleutnant - Lieutenant Colonel in 1866 and governed in the first section surveying Banate with headquarters in Timisoara and Pancevo.
In April 1866 he went to Verona as chief of staff of the local fort headquarters. In June, ranking progresses to the rank of Oberst - Colonel. Here also experienced fighting in the southern front of the Austro-Prussian-Italian War. These southern struggle, where the Austrian troops won both on land and at sea, describes a very engaging and yet militarily precise in his later book "Memories of the war year 1866",
including accurate personnel reporting chain of command of all three armies, but also their reflections, observations and the Austrian army officer and courageous criticism of shortcomings, both political and strategic, leading to this war, and military tactical and operational errors, which according to him caused the defeat much stronger northern army group, even including their ideas about "how should proceed. "In
the analysis, for example, mentions about how overrated fortification warfare tactics, which in this war clearly demonstrated, not only refers to obsolete equipment (percussion rifle against jehlovce) and specifically blames this zpozdilého technical condition of some of the responsibility high-ranking officers, points to the Austrian totally inappropriate color uniforms, the white color is a direct target in the field (on that occasion on the contrary, "he says," as clearly to reflect the red shirts of Garibaldi
against the white sections of rocks and how it is easily interfered tirolští Jagr) but he shrewdly notes and details that other authors do not find such a perfect orientation training Prussian NCOs and equipment Prussian partition map: "... The Prussians Byliť is all rather petty officers provided with detailed maps of Czech regions, maps kept in mind, ie opravovanými conscientiously according to the new departments in the borderland, new roads, hamlets, even according to all the changes and that these people well understand maps, whilst the maps showed us all how it was long ago, when they are calculated in the region, and maps are often not properly understand much higher gentlemen ... " 6)
The book also describes in detail one particular task, which was commissioned when the reasons of violation of the demarcation line of Italian troops after the agreed cease-fire, was sent from Verona to Padua Stra as parliamentarian for the complaint to the General Cialdinimu, chief commander of the Italian Army, asking for compensation whom the task very successfully acquitted. This moment captured on one of the many drawings in the book (Obr.III)
We can say that anyone who wants to situations leading to the war conflict in 1866, its progress and completion of more formal, it should not ignore this book.
After the handover Verona Italian army fort under peaceful conditions, under which monarchy, among other things comes to Venice, was the 16th December 1866 to May 1869 the Chief of General Staff in Zadar, then transplanting them to the 78th Infantry Regiment in Osek Slavonian.
There is very often met with a friendly bishop Strossmayer, among other galleries and founder of the Zagreb based in nearby Djakovo.
From 1 commanded the 1st November 1872 33rd Infantry Brigade Army divisions in Komarno, in 1873, is promoted to major general, 1875 transferred to Budapest, and in 1878 he is given command of 30th Army division in Lviv, where the 15th September of that year, is promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant - Field Marshal.
Even when he exhibited his works at "Towarzystwo Sztuki pieknych" genre paintings from the years 1879 to 1883
1st November 1883 37leté after leaving active service in permanent rest in Prague, on this occasion is awarded the Order of the Iron Crown II. classes
in 1884 and knighted - he and his direct descendants have been granted the status Freiherr - free of Lords.
The reasons for his retirement, they tell a very interesting story, according to the retired and not quite the usual course. To what then should happen?
In 1883, Mr. Field Marshal received a great honor and was invited to board JCM Franz Joseph I.
The board sat beside the Emperor, and some high dignitaries of Archduke, members of the royal family. After a meal of black coffee with one of the speech arciknížátek very rudely brushed the Czech nation. Friedberg, deeply, to the insulted heart soul arose and proclaimed that "... as a Czech he considered his duty to his imperial and royal majesty, Mr. Archduke, nejposlušněji noted that the Czech nation is of the cornerstones of the Austro-Hungarian empire, and that its decision after the death of King Louis in 1526 laid the foundation for future of the monarchy, so the absence of the Czech nation, it would not present the empire! "
At the instigation of the emperor himself, the conversation quickly turned another direction, though it was clear to see that it affected the taste of Archduke was in the air still remained cold stress. The next day, when Friedberg returned from a morning stroll to breakfast already waiting for him a special messenger with an envelope in which the "blue sheet" - transfer to retirement. 2)
Although this episode was certainly known to the single main reason for his retirement, still shows the characteristic features of nature Salomon - ardent patriotism, sense of justice and honor ... But even though these were his superior traits already well known, does not prevent an almost dizzying in its service process, although not from any prominent family.
Therefore, this brief re-summarize his career this time from the perspective of the life course.
Lieutenant II. class becomes the 17th years, a year later, eighteen, already first class lieutenant, a lieutenant at the age of 19 years and centurion II. class in less than 22 years (!) and centurion first class is becoming the age of 28 years. Major is now aged 30 years and lieutenant colonel five years later, at age 35. Colonel is named in his 37 years, Major General at the age of 44 years and the field already in the 49th Lieutenant Field Marshal year of his life.
Its first award received at the age of 20 years in the rank of lieutenant, which is decorated for valor in combat merit Military Cross with war decoration
and the Russian Order of St.. Anne III. Class with Swords
It goes to show one - Emanuel Salomon of Friedberg was always totally blameless loyal soldier, brave and deserving party struggles to rescue the turbulent years 1848-49 monarchy and in 1866 won the southern front remained partially military reputation of the Austrian army and allowed at least a little better position of the monarchy in negotiating a ceasefire and subsequent peace agreement.
He was always first-class officer and military expert, either in command positions or in professional - especially cartographic. The nature was very frank and open, and his consummate sense of justice and the law did not allow him to remain silent, although it was sometimes seemingly wiser. He was so revered and loved by his subordinates, superiors but mostly it was the opposite.
Over 37 years of his military career went through practically all the functions of command over the member and aide to Chief of Staff to the division commander, took part in practically all major military campaigns and battles of his time and "vojákoval" in almost all countries of the Austrian Empire - in Italy, Hungary , Croatia, Austria, Poland and of course in the country. 8)
After the retired permanently relocated to Prague and devoted himself fully to their cultural loves and participated in the Prague's social and cultural life. Prague public acceptance of a soldier with the soul of an artist very favorably in all social strata. Nobility, high rank and acquaintances in high circles of the Viennese court, including the emperor himself had opened wide access to the cream of Prague. He too, however, the company sought and maintained his contacts with the more "related souls." Scholars it highly valued for its extraordinary and profound knowledge and critical insight. Their former relations were always willing to selflessly use if he could serve the good of the Czech cause. This fact has left an interesting recollection of one of our best designers Charles Krnka arms.
After the lieutenant Krnka exhausted fighting probably "interested" War Minister Count Arthur Bylandt-Rheydt disgusted backstage and practices to demonstrate their advantages over the Ministry of repeaters protěžovanému Mannlicherovu system, was finally released last repeated request to the backup (and a scandal, when Krnka was also deprived of military rank for offensive statements against the General Staff and Minister of War himself), settles the father Gunsmith Krnky Sylvester in Prague - Michle and starts work in his arms workshop. On 28 September 1887 is getting married. "... Soon after the newlyweds reside in Michle is graced by visiting Czech writer Miroherský. Are very much interested in the new repeaters, bringing with him a few friends. What was then known, was a Lieutenant Field Marshal Field Miroherský retired. Soon came another visit. There was nobody insignificant. Much to the surprise of both gentlemen Krnků it was itself a "boss", Lieutenant Field Marshal Fabiny with the entire eighth General Staff College. vividly interested in the new repeaters and spoke again to produce this pattern .. " 4)
Although the situation with the decision of the priority system Mannlicher eventually changed, and as a result of this visit (and subsequent questions Members Dr Rieger
), the controversy over the fairness of the decision flared up again and finally had to minister of war, after being convicted of bias and false statements, leave retire.
Mostly, however, Friedberg - Mírohorský donated art of painting. Emperor Franz Joseph I
, with whom he knew from previous military campaigns, and even collected his paintings. The younger generation of his work painting the other hand criticized, but needs to realize what the different eras and styles based on both sides. He Friedberg - Mírohorský "... totally rejects the so-called." Modern "visual art without ideas, without the compositions, without drawings, with the impossible colors, false, ugly, unclear, mlhovité, sometimes to the deranged grim, and conscientious painters Lhota and die. Havránka naříkával sadly regret the good astray, where painting bogged down ... " 1)
The two parties actually creating mutual understanding could find difficult. Sometimes, however, had when it was "the family". Is funny because in the case of Friedberg-Mírohorského the wife of Alfons Mucha was his niece.
He was 54 years old and had another full quarter century of fruitful life. And this time so filled above the normal level, giving us no choice than to marvel at the diligence and activity.
For his productive artistic life oil paintings are from all branches in a number beyond 450 paintings, watercolors, is no less and sketches, sketches by nature, cartons and schedules for both images in kresebnicích and on separate sheets of a very large number. Painted images of battles, soldiers, a number of folk themes, landscapes, but also picturesque corners of old cities. Under the influence of his former teacher Tkadlík often portrays religious motives. Zagreb-based gallery for Bishop Joseph Strossmayer, whose name bears the square in Prague's Holesovice, painting canvases with south Slavic motifs and scenes. Painted portraits of generals it hangs in honor dvoranách Theresian military academies. in Wiener Neustadt and the Military Technical Academy in Vienna. His special style captures images in addition to many other, now extinct, corner of old Prague, Smíchov particularly old, and old castle in Liben, called "Lost VARTA"
and economy with a poetic name "Painted press"
- the place where he lived his childhood.
His loves included the námětovým illustrating Czech folk songs, poems and Czech, which unlike Aleš shorthand rather graphic lines, they are having an illustration of the character of the finished paintings, which works like a pencil with a brush. Some were published in the "Photographic picture gallery" Friedrich, later Bartošová as prints. Of these the most famous probably was a large lithographic sheet, "Where is my home."
He knows many Czech patriots with Carolina and dedicated as bright illustrations for many of its central "village novel".
Many of his drawings were published among others in the book "Memorial to celebrate the fiftieth reign of His Majesty the Emperor and King Franz Joseph I. and dvěstěletému 28th Infantry Regiment of Humbert I , King of Italy. "The contribution of leading art competitions and co-edited by Henry Alexander. Prague 1898th
Emanuel Friedberg-Mírohorský contributed to this Memorial, not only in the image attachments, but also extensive articles, hits from his "memoirs"
entitled "Twenty months of troubled times in the infantry regiment No. 28,"
which of course was accompanied by illustrative I. ).
Besides the above mentioned exhibitions, realized during active duty, retired, paintings exhibited in Prague in 1884, 1891 to the jubilee exhibition in Rudolfinum. The exhibit also Rudolfinum in 1892, 1893 and 1899 and the Ethnographic Exhibition in 1895, a number of images of war stories from 1848 and 1849.
Emperor Franz Joseph I
of his watercolors had four years of orders from 1852 and 1853 ("Ceremonial military scenes."
and "Site of the old Hungarian crown Ršavy")
and one oil painting, "Military Parade at Campo Marte in Venice 1861,"
Having its biggest oil area 6 m2 "Wedding Procession Dalmatian"
(1886) was devoted Náprstek industrial museum, "Christ with apprentices from Emmaus"
3 m2 (1889) is in the church in Střezměři, "St. Clement"
nearly 2 m2 (1894) hydrotherapy in the home chapel je. Piaseckého in Zakopane. Many paintings were donated to other churches in Bohemia, Galicia and in Croatia, some museím in Prague, Opava and other oil paintings and watercolors are scattered in many private individuals. Perhaps the largest collection of his works had been owned by Mrs. Hermina The family who owned a villa "Blanik"
near the Lounovice Blanikem, which used to go to Friedberg with his family to summer apartment. His own portrait was painted several times, because as he writes: ".. where it wished to who .." 1).
Watercolor "Wedding Procession Dalmatian"
(1881) the same as oil at his wedding thimbles put into albums, artists devoted to the Czech Crown Prince Archduke Rudolf.
Drawings supplied by his "humorous Sheets'
right from their founding year from 1858 to 1879, then 1885, and 1899 go into the thousands, in those first 21 years, few were without number and many numbers have been full of them, the" arrows "contributed
sometimes something in the image as a serious magazine "Pictures of Life", "Flowers", "Světozor," "Hustle," "Golden Prague"
also used to draw in 1889., these few thousand surviving drawings reflects not only his artistic - optical vision world, but they also reflected his personal views on various issues of the day, the problems of ordinary and public life, to political events. And these again appeared his sincere and radical patriotism often picked offensively especially in the Czech school matches and dignified position of national menšin.Takové drawings and political cartoons impres just for example in "comic leaves"
known to their anti-government radicalism could the Austrian officer contact plate only anonymously or use pseudonyms transparent "Mírohorský"
and only the excellent performance of military duty caused by superiors. "Narrowed eyes" of such conduct.
He also painted theater curtains and decorations for amateurs to Chrudim, Tabor, Rychnov n. Kneznou others proposing military and federal flags. How could things done?
This is explained in his autobiography:"... This can be explained by fertility rate of the wonderful and by conscientiously and diligently used. Every spare moment to studying nature and according to the improvement in the arts ..." 1)
And that his works are prized today as attested for example, 56th Auctions "Hlahol"
of 6 November 2004, where it is stated (in the department "Prints, Drawings 18 to 20 tables".) Auction this item: 360th Emanuel Salomon Mírohorský of Friedberg
Rural girls ................................................ 1 800 CZK
watercolor, pencil, paper, 10,3 x7, 8 cm, monogrammed. PD F, frame, back in
cut stamp estate Friedberka Mírohorského
His literary work, journalism, translation and the other is so extensive that it would be best (though we have some data already mentioned above), if we directly quote from his biography in "Otto encyclopedia"
(Vol. XXII., P. 553 - 556): "... That was until 1862, less článečky fejetonistické to" Prague Noviny ", then the" Time "and" Voice "in 1859 to travel fractions Nerudových" picture of life ", he worked in the military in 1870 for password" cyclopedia " Rieger , year 1864-67 contributed to the former "Golden Prague", then the "Flowers" and "Světozor" sketch from the year 1848-49 wars and brief explanations of their drawings to těchže magazine wrote in 1868 for "illustrative atlas" of defaulting Rieger dictionary "of warfare and military field" to "Flowers" has contributed articles on Dalmatia, the "Czech Thalia" sketch theater, in 1872 wrote "An Introduction to drawing and painting," published in 1877 Urbanek, 1873, details the military magazine "homeland", year 1873-1889 served fro fejetonistické mostly ethnographic articles in "National List", used to write the year 1869-76 in forestry magazine "Haj", year 1878-80 to the Prague journal for shoemakers and the Moravian "Carols" in 1881, "Theatre Sheets", 1884, issued a pamphlet "The vegetarismu" since 1885-93 has written extensively in the "Military List", among others, become part of "memoirs of his living in the years 1840-1848, "in 1888 also wrote small articles critical of the painting to" Vysehrad ", from this year. works for" Otto's encyclopedia "Password military, riding, painting, přírodoléčebná and others, in 1895 wrote to "home counselor" from 1896, writes in "Nature doctor", tr Bačkovský issued from the "memoirs of his life" - "30 years ago (the war 1866)" and "40 years ago (mapping in Romania)."
Devoted his talent and Thalia. He began writing plays as well, some of which his satire of German buršáku in Prague "vykoledovaly" and the official ban on playing. Small wrote a number of comedies, which after losing several preserved 11: "Promises of Errors," "Bedtime Story" (both operated in the interim. Theatre in Prague), "Surprise," "A rare guest" (in manuscript), "wedding shoes" , then the tendency Kneippovské "Syčáci", "In the morning dew," "Barefoot obutému", "mad", "The smallest" and "Cinderella sandálek" these 7 were carried out amateurs.
Small cells are scattered all calendars "veterans" and elsewhere the various memorials. His "Memories of my life" and begun the novel "How to revenge Slav" remained in manuscript.
The French translated the year 1890-92 four novels "Aunt Aurelia" and "Husband Jacquelinin" by A. Theurieta "Vikomtessa" by L. Barracanda and "Reliant Soul" by G. Ohneta, from Italian "Předčítatel princess" by G. Barriliho from German in 1897 "Postscript Kneipp" and in 1904 Kneipp "Veleknihu".
Lectures had in Prague, Hradec Kral. In Chrudim in Podebrady, and elsewhere in various clubs on military topics, travelogue, ethnographic, and later most životosprávná. "
The person is not interesting from a human standpoint. From a young age is a sworn opponent of smoking and alcohol consumption, including any beer. He following principles in its military and especially the Austrian army officer team neusnadňovaly life is obvious.
Since 1851 they began to devote himself to hydrotherapy, which he studied in 1854 by Dr. Grafenberg in Schindler's successor Priessnitz, 1881, by Th. Hahn at Obere Waid at St. Havel in Switzerland, in 1884 at dra Piaseckého in Zakopane in 1887 and in A. Riklího in Bled.
Since 1861 has been a strict vegetarian, an opponent of vivisection, chemical fertilizers in agriculture and in 1892 founded the association "Czech Kneipp"
which spread the views of the German natural healer Sebastianna Kneipp - hygiene to prevent disease and their treatment under přírodoléčebných principles. In this spirit began publishing a magazine and "natural medicine". "... He lives very modestly and in all, or why enjoys good health, is hardy and agile, always tuned to work until the end of life ...." 1)
Family life, however, unlike his military and creative too did not bring joy. Lost his mother shortly after birth, he buried his wife after 18 years of marriage and 7 children died three tiny and only four survived to adulthood. Two promising sons were imperial officers, senior Zdenko (1865-1893) for the Navy, the younger Louis (1870-1899 in the infantry, but both died in circumstances not fully explained - probably in unnecessary fights. The older daughter, Helen (1868-1917) suffered serious and incurable insanity, and so only the younger daughter Olga (born 1874) married in 1900 with the financial advice of Dr. Emil Lata and pleased for his father's granddaughter Olinka. Regardless of age, lived Emanuel Friedberg-Mírohorský the last days činorodým way and died December 10, 1908 in his Prague apartment in Rye Street No. 43rd at the age of nearly eighty years old and dying along with him and the liberal branch of the lords of Fridberga.
He is buried in cemeteries Olšany IX, Division 6, grave No. 102nd How he lived modestly and frugally looks and his final resting place covered with a simple green ivy. (Obr.IVa, b)
One interesting temperament, for much of today's population certainly incomprehensible, but we finally left.
As far as his work, whether painting or literature it should be emphasized that in his work essentially
took royalties, all his creations are passed on to the public or in private hands as a gift, or were made free. Similarly, his work for Otto's publisher did out of love, hobbies and free, whether it was proof "talks of the people"
or "Otto's Encyclopaedia".
Nor is it the only known case that the other editors and other publishing house had ever sent any work published for a fee. It is true that the amount služného and later retired senior officer that he was so completely unnecessary and it also never demanded - on the other hand it is a known fact that "material goods" too neoplýval and virtually no assets left no after. He did so out of sheer desire to serve the Czech cause - the Czech nation.
And what about the "nation"?
Although Emanuel Salomon from Friedberg-Mírohorský is one of the prominent personalities of Czech cultural public second half XIX. century in the Empire and as an ardent Czech patriot his education, insight and cultural formation far beyond the borders of their homeland, only 20 years
after his death, was caring for the Pilsen museum comprehensive posthumous exhibition of Friedbergovy artistic executor and an anthology of his works was purchased for Prague musejní institutions. Written memoirs estate awaits at the National Museum in the archives of other institutions in their processing day. Up until this day Dr. processes. Tomas Jiranek, University of Pardubice grant project entitled "Preparation of series of memory Emanuel Solomon Friedberg - Mírohorského"
End of the 2007th This biography is close quote from "The objectives of the project" with an identification number GA404/05/2493
: ....." During his military activities from Friedberg Salomon identified a number of countries and had the opportunity to personally meet with many important personalities, such as with the composer Liszt F., Bishop Strossmayer and others. Salomon from Friedberg-Mírohorský be afraid to act as Bohemia, a Czech company which was highly appreciated. Memories of Solomon Friedberg - Mírohorského an extensive, unique and even more valuable source for studying not only the situation in the army of the Habsburg monarchy in the 19th century and its military campaigns, but also for understanding contemporary society 10). Basic data on the Salomon family Nobilia Friedberg
It is with antique nobility, in an older form of "de seu de Monte Frydtberg Pacis"
Which is documented in writing to the year 1542, the first mention in the provincial boards of the Czech Kingdom is built in the 1645th Antique. noble status was confirmed by the Supreme Decision of 8.12.1662 and the degree of 3.21 1863rd Promotion to the aristocracy of Field Marshal of Emanuel Solomon Friedberg was granted on February 17, 1884. Followed by a new confirmation of the ancient nobility of May 18, 1885 from Major General Edmund Solomon Friedberg, who was a cousin of Emanuelovým older branches.
Erb Salomon from Friedberg (Obr.V) blasonujeme (profess-described) as follows:
In the l and 4 golden field čtvrceného shield black, red-armed, to Wednesday-looking, single head eagle, in the 2nd red field a silver, two-tailed, kráčejíoí lion with a raised right front paw aa red, tongue out, in the 3rd blue field rectangular gable wall behind which grows an armed man in a silver, gold-lined shell and an open helmet on head, right hand wielding a fiery sword with a gold hilt and left holding a green palm branch, left, underneath the wall faces burning black grenade. Crowned tournament helmet is fitted. black and gold on the right, left, blue-silver přikryvadly, jewel of the gunman shield between six flags, mounted on wooden poles are střibrnýni tips:
1.zlato-blue split, 2 silver-red routed, 3 red-silver-routed, 4 divided blue-gold, 5 silver-blue with a gold monogram divided FIII in the blue lane, divided 6.černo-gold with a gold monogram F III black stripe. Illustrations:
I. Self-portrait of Emanuel Salomon Freiherr from Friedberg-Mírohorského, the oldest, the highest member of the 28th Infantry Regiment
II .. Contemporary view of the building Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt
III. Austrian parliamentarian commander of the Italian Army General Cialdiniho
IV. Images from the grave Emanuel Solomon Friedberg - Mírohorského - author photo
V. Erb family of Salomon Friedberg Sources:
1) Otto's encyclopedia, part-XXII. s.553-556,
2) Čadík, Henry: spatulas and a variety of funny. West Publishing in Pilsen, 1966, chapter "Mírohorský must retire", p. 68-71
3) Lame, Mojmír "Emanuel Salomon Baron of Friedberg - Mírohorský - soldier, writer, painter and co-Otto's Encyclopaedia", article in Heraldic Yearbook 1988 by Czech Numismatic Society, a branch of Heraldry, p. 61-67, Prague 1988
4) Bacon, Miroslav: Krnkové and development of arms from 1848 to 1926, p. 26 to 28 published in 2001 Publishing Agency Pankrac Ltd. ISBN 80-902873-1-X
5) Fritsch, Jaroslav: The Bank of forgotten fate, or fragments Olsanske, s.55 - 58 Pankrac Agency Ltd. 2003, ISBN 80-86781 -01-1
6) Emanuel Salomon from Friedberg: Memories of the war year 1866 extracted from the memory of senior officer, Dr. Francis Bačkovský publisher, Prague 1906, 2nd issue Small links from the Internet:
Erb Salomonů z Friedbergů v barvě
Celkový pohled na prostý hrob
Salomonova ilustrace z knihy "Vzpominky na r 1866"
Parlamentář u velitele italské armády
Dobový pohled na budovu Tereziánské vojenské akademie ve Vídeňském Novém Městě
Autoportrét Emanuela Salomona svobodného pána z Friedbergu –Mírohorského, nejstaršího, nejvyššího příslušníka 28. pěšího pluku