GIDEON Ernst von Laudon - Generalissimo of the Austrian emperor, the royal army
(1717 - 1790)
Ernst Gideon von Laudon was born on 13 February 1717 Tootzen Farm in Livonia (present-day Latvia) Otto Gerhard Laudon father and mother, Sophia Eleonora von Bornemann. He came from a poor family and the Knights did not get his education too. Lack of money did not allow the young Gideon attend school or be home-schooled. Basic knowledge of his parents were mediated by a local Lutheran pastor. At the time of the birth took place around Gideon called the Northern War
between Sweden and Russia after the defeat of the Swedes, the family Laudon became subjects of the Russian tsar.
Ignorance of the French impossible Gideon von Laudon career at court, and therefore assumed the imperial armády.Po pskovského Regiment fought a brief training with his regiment in the War of Polish succession
(1733-1935) against a coalition of France, Spain and Savoy. Under general Munnichem participated in the campaign against the Tatars of Crimea (1735-1939).
After the war Laudon, as nezaměstaný officer to tackle its dismal financial situation of the first unsuccessful search engagements in Sweden and Prussia. Finally, thanks to connections, found a new location in Austria and captain Trenck pandurského Corps (he first 5th 1744) fought in the War of Austrian succession
(1740-1748). In this war was first and last in a fight. Austrian Empress Maria Theresa
in the war to keep the crown, but lost Silesia to Prussia.
After the war, Laudon in the rank of Army major assigned to countries, the buffer area between the Habsburg monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. Freedom Rangers undertook to guard the border and in case of war to fight in the army. Hraničářské troops were not only famous for their fighting spirit, but also atrocities against civilians and enemy troops were obyvatelstvu.Tyto order of Maria Theresa
incorporated into the regular army, which they raised protests and attempts at rebellion. Completion of the reorganization of border guards and their training in a more organized and obedient regiment attended Laudon. Hraničářské regiments should be disciplined, but they can keep their combat strengths to take quick raids, fight night in the winter months when the regular army pulling into winter camps. During his military service in the Krajina Laudon was married to Klara von Hagen had two children. Unfortunately, the two boys died in childhood.
After several years of peace in Europe began to fight again. Austria's traditional enemy of France, was bound to conflict with England overseas colony and dominion over the oceans, and therefore entered into an agreement with Austria on the fight against Prussia supported by England. For France and Austria and were soon joined by Sweden and Russia. She called the Seven Years' War
Although Colonel Gideon Laudon origin in an alien and a member of only the lower nobility (the higher nobility came in March 1759, when he was promoted to the nobility and became the owner of the estate Bečvárkách at Cologne), made during the four years of dizzying career that demonstrates his extraordinary abilities and accomplishments in hostilities. Colonel in March 1757 (awarded the Military Order of small cross Mary Theresa) in August 1757, Major General in July 1758 Lieutenant Marshal Field (awarded the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa), November 1759 Field armourer. As the war he was entrusted with more important tasks and commanded more troops. Unlike most officer of the imperial-royal army offensive was a supporter of the fight in which he applied his experience gained in training units hraničářských.
In the spring of 1758 invaded the Prussian king Frederick II.
00 to 55 soldiers to Moravia and besieged Olomouc.Tíživý lack of provisions and ammunition deal Prussian headquarters sending huge supply convoy of cars under a 4000 surveillance of 10,000 soldiers. Major General Laudon with 6500 troops and light artillery, attacked the convoy, he first 28th June for Guntramovice, and June 30 in conjunction with Major General Žiškovičem (Žiškovič up late, having originally had been Laudon attack June 28) at Domašov. They managed to disperse the supporting unit and get a huge booty. For lack of ammunition was Frederick II.
compelled to raise the siege of Olomouc and the retreat of the army of Marshal Daun, who pulled Manchester to help.
The campaign in Saxony in 1758 attacked the proposal Laudonův Austrian army led by Marshal Daun
(70 000 soldiers) to the camp of the Prussian King Friedrich II. (30,000 soldiers) in Hochkirku. That such a bold gambit by Daun wait and was so taken aback by the attack. 14th October 1758 it was still dark attacked Laudon (available had 6500 infantry and 600 riders) on the rear of the Prussian army and his troops, consisting mostly rangers accustomed to night fighting, smashing right-wing opponent. Prussian army and threatened to pass and had to retreat. The Prussians lost 9000 soldiers and 137 guns. Losses winners were about 5000 soldiers. When a report on the evening of October 15 victories learned Empress Maria Theresa
, convened a family that was about the bed and began to serve the Mass of thanksgiving.
In the summer of 1759 the Allies attacked twice on the superiority of Prussia. Frederick II.
wanted to prevent the concentration of enemy forces, and therefore the attack with 48,000 troops on the Russian army in Kunersdorfu. Čtyřicetitisícům Russians hurried to help Lieutenant Marshal Laudon with 18 000 soldiers. Laudonův church reinforced Russian cavalry formed the main Russian line of advance, based on a knoll Mühlberg. The proposal was Laudonův imperial royal artillery batteries and a few Russian fortified hill Spitzberg. 12th August 1759 the Prussian army violently attacked the Russian lines, broke them, and occupied Mühlberg. Laudonovy advance of Russian troops and moved to Spitzberg and intense gunfire stopped by a Prussian attack. Laudon then sent to attack the Russian imperial and royal cavalry squadron and crushed the Prussian army. King of Prussia, from the battlefield where he lost to 19 000 soldiers, fled. Battle Kunersdorfu was the bloodiest battle of the Seven Years War (The Allies lost about 15,000 soldiers). Unfortunately, despite the urging Laudonovo dogged opponent was defeated, and the Prussian king, therefore, could partially restore the Army's combat readiness.
Laudon, armourer field now becomes the commander of troops stationed in the Czech Republic and is responsible for developing an operational plan for the 1760th It provides for the conquest and occupation of Silesia Swidnica. 23rd liquidated in June 1760 with 30 000 men choir 11,000 Prussians at Landeshutu. 15th August of the same year suffered Laudon first and only defeat in Legnica. Marshal Daun
wanted to attack the Prussian camp, and sent Laudon with 24 000 soldiers to give him odříznul escape routes. Frederick but Daun outwitted, he managed to silently with 30 000 men from the camp and retreat with střetnul Laudon, who had no idea that it is against the whole Prussian army. After several attacks Laudon lost about 10 000 troops and then withdrew peacefully. From this defeat blamed Daun, who let slip the trap of Prussia.
In the summer of 1761 the Allies gathered almost 400 000 soldiers, and Prussia threatened to total defeat. Laudon, 70 000 soldiers operated against the main Prussian army led by Frederick II.
who had under his command 60,000 soldiers. Prussian King chose defensive tactics and fortified at Bunzelwitz. Fortifying his camp, however, weakened the major foothold in Silesia, strength Swidnica. After the Prussians retreated, leaving them to chase Laudon only part of his army and the main forces besieged and 1 October 1761 Svídnice conquered. Rescued from the inevitable defeat of Prussia Death Empress Elizabeth Petrovna
, who died 5th ledna 1762nd Her successor, Peter III.
nekritickýkm was an admirer of the Prussian king and the coalition were to collapse and subsequent appearances alongside Russia, Prussia. Even the coup, which the government of Russia took the Empress Catherine II.
the outcome of the war has changed nothing. Silesia was lost.
Laudon After the war he settled in Prague, where he was given the gift of a house. The tendered his services to the Spaniards and the Prussians. Laudon seriously considered the offer of the Polish king August III.
but he soon died. Offer Empress Catherine was willing to accept, but his claims seemed exaggerated to the Empress. The Habsburg Services served as the Inspector General's Corps (1766-1969), land commander in Moravia (1769-1975) and since 1769 the Authority exercised the court martial board. Annexation of Galicia in 1772, did not attend, probably for health reasons, although speculation about the power struggle for influence over the Emperor Joseph II.
in which he prevails Lacy.Od Marshal Laudon 1777, stayed mostly on Hadesdorf castle on the outskirts of Vienna.
War between Prussia and Austria broke out in the succession disputes of the Bavarian succession
(1778-1779). Joseph II.
intended to replace an isolated Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria strategically important. This does not allow the King of Prussia. In February 1778, finally Laudon dočkává rank of Field Marshal and the commanding general in the country. Laudon had under his command 62,000 men. Against him stood 100,000 men Prussian Prince Henry. Laudon was criticized as too defensive warfare, but his deft maneuvering managed to grasp the Prussian army from several directions. Due to the resistance of Maria Theresa
to the battle occurred. In May 1779 a peace agreement was signed which brought Austria minimal territorial gains. 29th Queen died in November 1780.
After an unsuccessful attempt to acquire Bavaria, turned Emperor Joseph II.
attention to the weakening Ottoman empire and 29 February 1788 it declared war
. Laudon, who was reporting for duty with the "light of his age and health," the Emperor refused. After a very encouraging during the war, the Kaiser asked Laudon on taking command of troops in Croatia. I enjoyed the way the old frontline commander huge ovation as free citizens of Vienna and the soldiers. After a siege of several days in his 26th August 1788 Dubica strength and gives up after heavy fighting third September and strength of Novi. In contrast, Caransebes (21 to 22 September 1788), the main development of the imperial-royal army, reinforced by the alcohol gets into himself and thinking he is attacked by the Turks fled in panic from the battlefield. In the spring of 1789 progressed Laudon in Banja Luka and 8 June Berbir captured the fortress. At the end of July, Laudon appointed commander in chief throughout the imperial and royal army is responsible for the conquest of Belgrade. Laudon with 46 000 soldiers came to Belgrade and left there to build a fortified camp, to reduce the risk of infection. Then the city and surrounded by hired martial Lodice odříznul and river. After the announcement of the approaching Turkish army commanded the 30th September decisive attack on the walls and attacking troops managed to fight their way into the city. 8th October, after days of intense bombarded, the commander Osman Pasha surrendered the promise of a free retirement. Laudonův December's return to Vienna turned into a triumphal march. When his audience at the Imperial Palace went out to Joseph II.
accommodating and welcomed him saying "Welcome to Belgrade winners. Just before the Emperor's death (February 20, 1790) Laudon is appointed commander of the army for a war with Prussia. Joseph's successor, Emperor Leopold II.
named Gideon Ernst von Laudon Generalissimo of the army, the ranks that were in Habsburg history appointment only Prince Eugene of Savoy
and Duke Albrecht of Wallenstein. In June 1790 the Generalissimo von Laudon leaves on an inspection trip to the border with Silesia. 8th July in Novy Jicin ill and 14 died July 1790. His remains were interred in Hadesdorfu.
Ernst Gideon von Laudon was a great leader who could defeat the forces of military and political genius of his time, the Prussian king Frederick II.
, fittingly, during a visit to the maneuvers Uničov Laudon said: "Mr. Marshal, please come, sit beside me, you prefer I see by your side than against them. "
Source: Paul Bělina - General Laudon
Heinz Rieder - Maria Theresa