Katapultážní seat KM-1 was formed in the soviet design office OKB Mikoyan-Gurevich in the early 60's.years as a modern replacement of the existing seats KK-1 and SK-1 for aircraft Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21. The basic idea was to construct a sufficiently simple and effective seat with the best parameters including the ability to catapult the pilot on the ground (i.e. the characteristics of the 0-0). The seat had to be also, what is the most compact because the size of the cockpit of the Mig-21 was no longer possible to change. So there was a relatively simple seat with a pyropatronovým the drive and the dorsal parachute and the possibility of ejection from zero altitude (up to a speed of 180 km/h). First aircraft not where was the new seat used was a jet fighter aircraft Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-21US and subsequently got even on the other type of OKB Mikoyan Gurevich. Naming can be mainly MiG-21 (from the version of the PFM hereinafter), the MiG-23 (all versions) and MiG-25. Furthermore, the aircraft OKB Mikoyan Gurevich seat KM-1 is used, for instance bombers Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire. The only disadvantage of seat KM-1 is the absence of the overhead deflector thereby is prevented eject through the closed canopy.
(described is the modified seat KM-1 of fighter aircraft Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-25)
The basis of seat KM-1 is made up of vertical structures made of maraging steel consisting of two girders and five cross. On this structure, it is in the top of the fixed padded headrest containing an emergency walkie-talkie to the pilot and the first aid kit.
Under the záhlavníkem is placed profiled ironclad shield resistant to the intervention of the projectiles in caliber 7,65 mm roll pilotova back. On the shield are placed the hinges for fixing the back of the glider pilot and the rescue chute. This parachute has a separate restraint straps to which is the pilot in the seat, clamped and used as a cause the reserve parachute to the harness after the separation of the seats from the pilot in case of ejection. Parachute pouch contains, inter parachutes and two small cylinders for the pilot (oxygen) and to pressurize the suit (the air). These bottles are placed on the padded front part of the parachute of the capsule forming at the same time, the head restraint of the back of the pilot. Along the sides of the shield are placed two hinges with utahovacími rollery for the main restraint belts of the seat.
The lower part of the seats to form the profiled metal bath in which is located the emergency equipment the pilot (additional food benefits, survival equipment). Its upper cover is formed of soft metallic cover. Along the sides of the front and sides of the tub are placed a fixed limiter of the movement of the pilot when despite issuing the ejection containing the controls of the seat. A true limiter is additionally complemented by a simple timer KPA-4, which ensures the correct functionality and timing of the katapultážní sequence. Energy timer during the flight, takes away from the onboard network of the aircraft and after despite issuing the ejection is provided from a small battery located on the right side of the bath seats. At the forefront of the tubs and the seats are placed footrests with stirrups to capture the foot while despite issuing the ejection. In the midst of the front part are placed handrails running katapultážní sequence
Other elements on the seat are no longer placed directly on the supporting structure of the seat. Under the dorsal shield is placed a rod with a manipulator and a control device for the tilting of the consumer rozhozu hands when despite issuing the ejection. These limiters are located at the ends of the load bars. The rear side of the load bearing structure carries the main and backup stabilizing parachute and the guide tube of the seat with katapultážní pyropatronou in its cavity. After her lower hand are placed rychlosvorky the heating of the suit of the pilot and the oxygen and air supply of the suit. On the upper side of the structure is placed sensor tracking the delivery of the canopy and apparatus for the transfer commands to odhozu cover from the timer KPA-4 to the pyrotechnic system odhozu of the canopy.
Katapultážní the sequence of seat KM-1:
1)the Pilot has fold label of the helmet and the legs of the signed attached in třmenech on the footpegs, there is a retraction at the initiation of the grip katapultážní seats (the pilot is instructed to keep hands on the katapultážních madlech).
2)the Timer KPA-4 is activated, are catching up with the main restraint straps, fold the limiter rozhozu hand, occurs by pressurizing the suit, the timer sends a command to trigger the pyrotechnic system odhozu the canopy (if it is not pushed, the signal is constantly repeated and eject it in the meantime blocked).
3)the Canopy is discarded and zažíhá is pyropatrona katapultážního system seats while the development of the telescopic tube the seat leaves the cockpit (rychlosvorky are rozpojeny and the power supply and the oxygen system shall pass to the autonomous systems integrated in the seat.
4)Pyropatrona burned out and the opening of the main stabilizing parachute. In the event that his opening does not occur, it opens up the backup stabilization parachute.
5)the Seat is stabilized and zbržděna to a safe speed. Leads to the release of the main lashing straps and the pilot from the seat becomes detached with the parachute casing on the back and the emergency equipment of the headrest and the seat-tub seats, hanging on the rope under the other.
6)Automatically opens the personal parachute of the pilot (the opening of the rescue chute in the case of nerozvinutí or neotevření the main parachute).
the Parameters of the seat in terms of height and speed of ejection:
(The speed of ejection / the height of the ejection)
0-270km/h / 0 m
270-600km/h / 100 m
>600km/h 500 m
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