Proč měli Sověti tři tanky třetí generace?

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Proč měli Sověti tři tanky třetí generace?

Proč Sovětský svaz vyvinul a zavedl do výzbroje tři podobné hlavní bojové tanky?

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    Why should the Soviets three tanks of the third generation?[/heading:aaaaaa]

    Why the Soviet union developed and at the end of the sixties and early seventies introduced into serial production and in the arsenal of the three main battle tanks, which were basically the same destination and similar characteristics?






    Introduction


    Three similar types of
    Western military analysts it was not when first looking at the main battle tanks of the third generation in the soviet arsenal clear why the Soviets have introduced into the armament of three types, whose destination was basically identical and whose characteristics did not differ enough to justify the increased costs in the areas of production, logistics and maintenance. In the German democratic republic had in the second half of the seventies and in the eighties in the framework of the Group of soviet forces in Germany 1. guards tank, 20. guards and 3. army in the arsenal of tanks T-64 while 1. guards tank and 8. guards army have the tanks T-80. In Czechoslovakia, soviet troops in the arsenal of tanks T-72 and in Hungary again, tanks T-64. A large number of tanks all of these three types was also stationed in the second echelon in the western part of the Soviet union and other thousands of them were waiting for the Urals. At the end of the existence of the USSR accounted for these three types of tanks the backbone of the giant soviet tank fleet, which consisted of approximately 77 000 vehicles. Tank T-64 was introduced in 1966, the tank T-72 since 1973, and the tank T-80 from the year 1976. This is actually a very short period of time and be the difference between the initial versions of the T-80 and newer versions of the T-64 wasn't too essential. Why, then, have occurred to such an unnecessary waste of resources?

    Reason
    It came from the need to face many different opponents? In the West stood against the soviet machines american tanks M48 Patton, M60 Patton and M1 Abrams, the british machine Centurion, Chieftain and the Challenger 1, German tanks Leopard 1 and Leopard 2 and the French machine the AMX-30. Even this diversity but does not create the need to introduce three tanks with similar battle value. Tanks of western provenance have also been included in the arsenal of the gradually and with the advent of the new machines, were not immediately scrapped the previous tanks, but between the introduction of individual types was much greater interval of. Moreover, the soviet army was still in the arsenal of even the older types of tanks, which were machines of the second generation T-55 and T-62. Perhaps a greater threat to soviet tanks on the european battlefield accounted for gunships AH-1 Cobra, Aérospatiale Alouette III, Aérospatiale Gazelle, MBB Mo 105P/PAH and partially even to the end of the 80. years newly introduced AH-64 Apache with their anti-tank missile AGM-114 Hellfire, handheld or from vehicles fired anti-tank guided missiles HOT, MILAN or TOW and any damming of the possible main routes to detonate a nuclear min. On the eastern border of the ussr had to count with the chinese tank forces. But you should be in the arsenal of their own clones of soviet tanks of the second generation, i.e. the T-54, T-55 and T-62. Hence also the need for three types of tanks of the third generation of the USSR to avoid. The reason is, therefore, necessary to search in other than a technical or doctrinal area. An explanation of the mysteries of the offers word Oboronka, which is a Russian colloquial expression for the arms industry, one of the fundamental pillars of the military-industrial complex. Due to the fact that this type of industry formed in the USSR half (by some estimates even more) the economy of the state, it was a very powerful conglomerate. It was about an interconnected group of party officials, military officials, senior staff from economic ministries, directors of factories, heads of structural offices and other factors. The fact that they were made and in the arsenal of introducing three types of tanks of the third generation is the result of the interests of the leaders of this group. How did this happen?

    Tanks of the first generation


    the Origins of the soviet tank industry
    The origins of the soviet tank industry date back to may 1920, when he started with the production of a copy of the French light tank FT-17, known under the name of Russkij Reno. In the twenties the soviet military theorists saw the need to create armored forces, which were to serve as the backbone of the Worker-peasant red army (RKKA). A significant impetus for the further quantitative development of this sector came in the early thirties, when the Soviets got british machine Vickers Mark E, and the chassis of the Christie tank M1931, which was a vehicle that was supposed to move use either the belts, or just your castor wheels. On the basis of both cars were developed by our own design.

    the Design office and the manufacturing plants before the second world war
    In the thirties produced by the soviet industry, tanks in two locations. In the Kharkiv plant for the production of steam locomotives and the three plants in Leningrad. Each of these three factories have own design office, which dealt with the development of tank technology. At its head stood the chief designer. The management of the plant formed its director, chief designer, head designers of each department of the design bureau, the highest party official in the factory and the representatives of the workers. In practice, had the main word factory director and chief designer. Both had to be in the side and have confidence top. The director of the factory was usually an engineer who was partly experience with the design, however, its main task was to ensure the smooth progress of production and implementation of the plan. The chief designer was responsible for it, that product will be ready in time for production. The other members of the management were also important tasks, however, without the consent of these two individuals is nothing major to be decided.

    Changes towards the end of the thirties
    Towards the end of the thirties there was in the USSR two production centres and in both there have been significant changes, mainly in the personnel area. Kharkovskaya locomotive works (otherwise known as Plant no. 183) got a new director and chief engineer, as both of the previous were in the context of stalin's purges, arrested and shot. The new director became Yuri Jevgeněvič Maksarjov and šéfkonstruktérem Mikhail Ilyich Koškin. The autonomy of his leningrad tank races was in the mid-thirties osekána and in 1937 there was one design office, which oversaw the development activities in all three factories. Of these factories was the main word of the Leningrad Kirov plant (Race no 185). The Race To The. J. Voroshilov (Race no 174) and Plant Bolshevik (Race no 100) there were little branches. The new director of the Kirovova the race became Isaak Mojsejevič Zalcman. Šéfkonstruktérem all three races, he was appointed Žozef Jakovlevič Kotin.

    Mikhail Koškin
    Mikhail Also. Koškin was among the capable engineers. He was born in 1898 and from 1919 was a member of the party. Had good results and at the same time made an impression on the party cadres. He studied at the university in Sverdlovsk and the polytechnic institute in Leningrad. He worked there in the near Sergei Mironoviče Kirova and become a friend Grigori Konstantinoviče Ordžonikidzeho that he was favoring. This allowed him to step in as engineer to the best of the leningrad factories, thus by Race no 185. In January 1937 he was appointed acting šéfkonstruktérem in the Kharkiv lokomotivce. The current head of Firsov was arrested. Already in February of the same year but died Ordzhonikidze and Koškin found themselves without political protection. However, the issue is quickly understood. But Kharkovskaya locomotive works played second fiddle. The most prestigious design create in Leningrad. In Kharkov got Koškin the task to improve the BT tank, as many of these cars represented the only major military production in this plant. It was by no means wonderful career prospect. However, Koškin had an ace up my sleeve. In Kharkov was also a design office, which dealt with the development of diesel engines. That after six years of development and testing was ready to manufacture high-speed diesel engine BD-2.

    Nevylepšování BT
    Koškin realized the value of the new engine. And so despite the arrest of its designer Konstantin Fjodoroviče Čelpana in December 1937, the project could proceed further and in April 1938 he started the engine to test. Koškin you thanks to the work on the tanks BT-7-B-IS with improved running gear and the BT-SV, the sloped armor was aware that it is necessary to come up with completely new structures. The situation to him but complicate the success of a gifted engineer Adolf Jakovleviče Dika, who managed to solve problems with the power train on the tank BT-7-B-IS. Its serial production could start in 1938. Koškin in it but I could see, although improved, but conceptually for a long time already outdated machine. The ability to drive on wheels and strips on paper looked like a great advantage, Koškin but realized all the flaws and compromises that the dual solution produces. Indeed, the Spanish civil war the shortcomings of this concept clearly proved. But just this concept of the popular commanders of the old ordinary cavalry, who held the influential features. Koškin however, the tank could BT zproblematizovat and at the same time to bypass the input received from the party agents, which allowed him to follow the path that led to a new concept. The trip was simply: to leave the option of driving on wheels, build a hull with sloped armor, put in a new engine BD-2 and the tower to mount the biggest possible cannon. On this plan but he didn't have permission, and therefore had to go a roundabout way through the models A-20, which looked like an improved BT-SV II, and A-32, which no longer have the option of driving on wheels. Agents Oboronky both types were presented as improved machines of the series BT.

    Žozef Kotin
    Žozef J. Kotin was born in the year of 1908 and it wasn't a design genius as his kharkov competitor. Still, this was a good designer, who had some positive character traits. However, it was said that in his career gave him a lot of help the fact that he had connections. On the military-technical academy in Leningrad he became known with the actors as they were Kirov, Voroshilov, Bljucher and Tuchačevskij. In addition, he got married with the alleged Vorošilovovou daughter Anastasijou Polkonnovovou. In may 1937 he was arrested and shot the chief designer of the Leningrad Kirovova race Ivanov. Kotin assumed the position and I'm sure he had a good feeling from this, they found a common language with the director of the Kirovova race Isaak Zalcmanem.

    a Replacement for the heavy tank T-35
    Prior to this tandem's task was to design a heavy tank, which would replace the obsolete machine T-35, and the successor to light tank T-26. Kotin during the already mentioned reorganization became the boss of all three of his leningrad tank design offices. From this the functions of ordered operators in Kirov (SKB-2) and in Vorošilovově race (SKB-1) to compete and came in each with your suggestions. Both teams came in with similar suggestions. SKB-1 proposed trojvěžový tank T-100 and SKB-2 similar machine, which they named SMK after Sergei M. Kirov. T-100 i SMK were but just a little more cumbersome than the T-35. Even one model didn't do too great impression on the highest of the party, state and military officials. It was determined that development should be directed to the tank with one cannon.

    the Difficult birth of the T-34 tank


    Competition for the main soviet tank
    In August 1938 Koškin demonstrated his new proposals in Moscow. Together with the suggestions on the improved version of the tanks of a series BT with brought the proposals to the machine And-20 and A-32. About the concept of a tank with the option of driving on tracks and the wheels is expressed rather negatively, although it was very popular for a number of factors on the general staff. Instead, he offered the concept of a light, fast, better armed and better armored tank, which would be to move used exclusively belts. Vorošilovovi together with other actors, who believed that in the leningrad office certainly come up with a better machine, I almost managed to Koškinovi proposals to condemn, but to things actively put Stalin. Not that I wasn't fully convinced that he has Koškin the truth, however, kharkov's chief designer was given the task to concept out further work. Koškinovi played into the cards also, that the people's commissar of the middle mechanical engineering, to which resort was the production of tanks, was in February 1939 appointed Vyacheslav Ivanovich Malyšev. It was about a man who was open-minded, tactful and intelligent, which was in a society based on secrecy and subtlety of a small miracle.

    Koškin receives permission
    In September 1939 took place in Moscow a meeting, at which were presented the three leningrad prototypes. T-100, SMK and the desired jednověžový tank, which termed the KV, which were the initials of Kliment Voroshilov. The KV was of these three the best and many officials received him with enthusiasm. However, the kharkiv designs - BT-7M, the a-20 and especially And-32 - were compared with lenigrandskými giants clearly more modern. In addition, the diesel engine BD-2, which was in the meantime changed name to In-2. Even Voroshilov could not conceal that Koškinův proposal has its merits. Kharkov's chief designer so he got permission to continue in the development of your tank.

    Assault Finland and the approval of the KV
    At the end of November 1939 declared the Soviet union the war much smaller Finland. But it proved to his giant neighbor to inflict hard blows, tank technique included. Cars like the T-26 and BT have proven to be insufficient to puncture the Mannerheimovy line, as the Finns easily out of the fight. Leningrad zbrojovka offered to the queue will send its prototypes. The offer was accepted, and on the front so took off the T-100, SMK and KV. The first two machines to perform poorly, while the GOK has demonstrated a certain potential. Reports of his performance was deliberately very exaggerated. Based on them managed to push the KV into production, although it has not finished its test program.


    Problems with the marketing of the T-34 tank
    It looked like it could start production of the T-34. Voroshilov this machine but wanted to take advantage of the previously approved tank A-32. Decided that T-34 is a new machine, which must go through the development and approval cycle. The first task was to produce eleven pieces for the factory test. Meanwhile, the design bureau of the leningrad Vorošilovova race came up with a proposal for a new infantry tank, the T-126SP, which was approved for production as the T-50. According to lenigradské groups have managed to KV and T-50 complete all tasks designated for the tanks, and the production vehicles of the T-34 according to them, therefore, was unnecessary. Koškinovu team throwing the authorities of sticks under the feet and in the end it was decided that the T-34 has to prove, why should he go into production. About his future be decided on the basis of comparative trials, which should take place in march 1940 in Moscow.

    Trip to Moscow
    Koškin your product believed, and so he set off with two machines on the way from Kharkov to Moscow on our own. Tanks have arrived to the capital during twelve days without any major technical problems, but the chief designer from pneumonia. Mutual comparison of tanks T-34 and KV before the highest party and military officials turned out clearly in favor of agile T-34, which impressed a significantly better impression than a clumsy tank KV. Malyšev get a new tank in detail inspected and was satisfied. Even Voroshilov had to admit the quality of charkovského machines. The result was the adoption of the decision on the serial production of the new tank. Koškin with both cars went from Moscow to Kharkov again on its own axis, and again without too much trouble. After the end of the war with Finland were machinery the T-34 sent to Karelia, where they had to check it out, how would you cope with the Finnish anti-tank obstacles. In the tests the tanks stood. Koškin but couldn't the fruits of your labor fully enjoy, because it plagued him with the consequences of pneumonia, which finally, in September 1940, he died.

    Alexander Morozov and the T-34M
    On Koškinovo instead he joined his current assistant Aleksandr Aleksandrovič Morozov, which until then was in charge of the particular work on transmissions. Morozov he was also a gifted engineer, who, in the kharkiv lokomotice was already active before the Koškinovým advent. That, when he decided to go on the way to T-34, a variety of Morozovových projects stalled, which caused some jealousy. Morozov but he had to after his arrival, mainly to defend the new T-34, since a number of military officials was still directed against the Charkovu in favor of Leningrad, where appropriate, against the T-34 in favor of the concept of a fast tank BT. Kharkov plant, so he was tasked to work on the "improved" T-34, which looked more like T-50. The problems that occurred in the first serial T-34, just played in favour of the requirement for the "improved" machine, which was referred to as the T-34M, respectively, And-43. Machine the T-34 helped Morozovovi defend even the director of the factory Maxarev and the local party chief, who have attested, everything has already been done to improve T-34, and therefore that it is useless to waste time engineering works on the T-34M. Though the regulation of may 1941 requested after Charkovu to focus on the T-34M. The change brought to the moment when Germany attacked the Soviet union.

    German-soviet war


    Move factories behind the Urals
    When the Germans in June 1941 they attacked, it was manufactured in the Kharkov tank T-34 model 1941 and in the Leningrad tank KV-1 model 1941. Together in the meantime, both the factory made less than two thousand pieces of machinery. The first reports from the front stated that both machines accounted for for its German competitors an unexpected and a hard nut to crack. Leningrad but he was one of the first targets of the German expansion, so soon started thinking about the evacuation of the local factories, the workers and their families in the Urals. 24. June Stalin met with Malyševem and Zalcmanem. The move to Čeljabinska started 23. July 1941 and completed was 10. December. In the meantime, the evacuation began from Kharkov by Nizhny Tagil, which was launched on 19. October 1941. The leningrad plant was placed into Čeljabinského traktorového race, which was the previous production stopped. The plant was expanded and began with the production of tanks. His name was changed to Čeljabinský Kirov's race. Kharkov plant was moved to an existing Ural vagonky.

    the Poor performance of the KV and the good performance of the T-34
    Soon it turned out that the initial reports about the great qualities of the KV-1 was overdone. The German tanks and anti-tank guns had struggled to penetrate its armour, and the help had to often fly large caliber anti-aircraft guns, but the tanks suffered from mechanical problems, particularly in the area of the transmission system. The Tank was outdated, heavy and its significantly higher weight was not balanced by a higher firepower. Immobile machines often long resisted as an impromptu fortress, but that's just not it, what are the tanks on the battlefield designed. Much better battlefield commanders rated the machine T-34. It is Kotinovi respect the power pleasantly. Inspection trip but participated in Malyšev, which is then taken care of, to production of the T-34 spread. So while KV-1 produced only in Chelyabinsk, the new T-34 was blown away by the from the factories at Kharkov and then to Nizhny Tagil, Stalingrad, Gorky, and after a time, even in Omsk. Kotin had to endure that for the production of T-34 was earmarked and part of the capacity in Chelyabinsk. Tanks T-34 it was finally produced approximately 61 000, while the vehicles of the KV of all of the models roughly 4 500.

    KV-13 and T-43
    In early 1942 were given a design bureau in Chelyabinsk and Nizhny Tagil permission to work on the development of new types of tanks. The result of the design work were the designs of the machines of the KV-13 and T-43. Kotinova KV-13 was an attempt to enforce the heavy tank with the parameters of the medium. Should go on a universal machine, which would be able to perform on the battlefield most of the tasks. It was actually the fourth attempt lenigradské group on the decommissioning of the tank T-34 of the game. Morozov T-43 was a departure from the previous line. Instead of the Christie chassis used in Tagil to the suspension torsion bars. Tank plus got a transversely mounted engine and a new gearbox. The state commission both tanks, but refused to, because neither one of them did not bring a major qualitative advantage over the T-34. Continued production T-34 i KV-1. In the case of the KV them, but it was still less.


    KV-1S, IS-1 and IS-2
    Kotinův engineer Nikolai Fedorovich Šašmurin started however work on a new proposal. He first created a lightweight version of KV-1, which was given the designation KV-1S. He continued on and came up with a proposal for a heavy tank IS-1, who was armed with a cannon caliber of 85 mm, which but was not powerful enough against the German heavy tanks and the extra weapon of the same calibre was fitted into the tank T-34/85, which was improved T-34. T-34 with the original gun is referred to as T-34/76. Šašmurin therefore still in 1943 came up with the design of the tank IS-2, whose firepower ensures the cannon caliber 122 mm.

    T-44 and IS-3's
    Even Morozov wasted no time. In February 1944, ran the serial production of the T-34/85 and in Tagil have already worked on the new proposal. The machine was based on T-34, but had significantly modified the truck and partially also the tower. The machine is removed a number of shortcomings T-34, but not completely. Yet he got into production as T-44. The extent of his production of any of the staggering numbers reached and the tank in battles of world war ii eventually didn't. In Chelyabinsk in the summer of 1944 began with the development of tanks IS-3 and IS-7.

    a Partial return races
    The development of on line shortly enabled to move factories to their original location. Kotin immediately returned to Leningrad, while Zalcman remained in Chelyabinsk, where šéfkonstruktérem became Nikolai Of. At the end of the war, therefore, there existed four basic places of production tanks: Lenigrad, Chelyabinsk, Kharkov, and Nizhny Tagil. Plant in Omsk has become a branch of the leningrad.

    the Dispute about the IS-3
    The first dispute between the different races came before the end of the war. Led him to the Leningrad and Chelyabinsk and related to the development IS-3. Tank designs received since the outbreak of the war, factory markings, which consisted of the words object and three-digit numbers. Machines from the Tagil they numbers 1xx, from Leningrad 2xx, from Kharkov 4xx and from Chelyabinsk 7xx. Leningrad and chelyabinsk office should own the design of the tank IS-3. The leningrad Object 244 was marked by low construction, watered down the turret of the IS-2 and the front part of the three rolled plates welded into the characteristic shape of the wedge. Čeljabinský Object 703 also known as the I'll (Russian victory) brought the rebuilding of the IS-2. The hull was based on the previous version, but has been upgraded. A tower reminiscent of a frying pan not the desktop, which would allow the rebounding of the projectiles on the weaker parts of the armour. The dispute between the two firms had to resolve Malyšev. In the manufacture of a new tank should be used the leningrad hull and chelyabinsk towers. Marked should really be as IS-3, which is assumed for the Object 244, but the factory label should be the Object 703. The Tank went into production in the year 1945, but were produced only a limited amount of machines. You may have made a big impression on the show in the Berlin, but the machine suffered from a number of problems. The crew complained about the cramped conditions and the fragility of the hull, whose welds had a tendency to crack. Even the engine did not belong to the most reliable. IS-3 had to go through three modernisation programmes than could be considered reliable. But it already was in the year 1959 and the tank was outdated.

    Tanks of the second generation


    IS-8 (T-10)
    Kotin in Leningrad did what he could to diminish the capacity of the chelyabinsk office. He took their key design engineers and the inability to recruit new talented cadres with experience with the development of tanks. Yet in Chelyabinsk have proved in the years 1948 to 1949 to develop a tank IS-4. These machines may have produced only 250 pieces, but the leningrad machine IS-5, IS-6 (object 252)/IS-6 (Object 253) and IS-7 remain just in the stage of prototypes. At the end of the forties the state issued requirements for a new heavy tank, which was not allowed to exceed the weight of 50 tons. Leningrad and chelyabinsk factory attempted to obtain contracts. The leningrad office came with the Object 262, which was largely oprášený IS-3. Chelyabinsk offered to the Object 730, which was similar to the original Object 703. Not a single proposal did not represent substantial progress in the development, which warned Zalcman. That was in 1950, accused of corruption and arrested. Although didn't end up in the gulag, however, scored a career fall, when he was moved to the post of director of a small factory for the production of tank tracks. Kotin ultimately pushed through their proposal, which then went into production under the designation IS-8, which was after the Stalin death is changed to T-10.

    T-54
    After Stalin the death occurred in the development of soviet tanks, the phasing-out period. All four races took care mainly about that they have secured a stable production, even though even the development of completely forget. Čeljabinský chief designer Of that time respected the unwritten superiority of the leningrad chief engineer Kotin. The whole period was rather in the character improvement of the existing machinery than in the introduction of innovations. In 1956, systems were in place stabilization of the gun in one plane, which in 1957 was followed by stabilizers in two planes. Installed were also means for warfare in the night, which was a combination of infrared lamps orienting and viewing instrument working in the infrared spectrum. Morozovovým the last product in Nizhny Tagil and the last major news before the Stalin the death of the tank was the T-54, production of which began already in 1946, but initially it was very little numerous series. In larger numbers began to these machines roll off the production lines until the beginning of the 50's. years, but even then it was not about the staggering numbers. The machine had a transverse engine, suspension zkrutnými rods and a powerful 100 mm cannon, a low silhouette and polokulovitou tower.

    Object 140 and T-55
    Morozov could be satisfied, for, this medium tank was more advanced than the already mentioned heavy tank T-10, however, Morozov still envied Koškinovi the success that he had with a tank T-34. Morozov decided to go back to Kharkov. In Tagil forward Morozov challenges the new head of the design office, which has become a thoughtful and very capable, but also sometimes to blunt Leonid Nikolayevich Karcev, who because of that had frequent problems with partisan actors. Plus, wasn't exactly thrilled that he has to be in charge of the product, which designed by someone else. Shortly after his accession he came with the Object 140, which was within the plant internally referred to also as T-54M. The machine got a new arrangement of the running gear with six wheels, zkrutnými rods, three supporting pulleys and belts with kovopryžovým link, whose articles were connected with one pin. It was an innovative proposal, which was more expensive compared to the already accrued production the T-54. But she suffered by her were gradually introduced news, so created several variants (T-54, T-54A, T-54B, T-54V, T-54G, T-54D and with the prospect of others), which caused big problems to the people from the army logistics. Karcev therefore, together with colleagues created the design of the Object 155, which in itself had incorporated all of the incremental changes the T-54. In January 1958 the tank was put into production under the designation T-55.

    Upgrading T-10
    In Lenigradě in the meantime, led to disputes with both Čeljabinskem, so in the context of the race on the T-10. Version T-10A with a system of stabilization of cannon in one plane came in 1956, and a version of the T-10B with a system of stabilization in two planes and the infrared viewing device, then in 1957. Another version of the T-10M was produced in both races, under the two factory designations (Object a 272 and Object 734) and with some other non-compatible parts.

    Tanks of the third generation


    Tanks T-64 and T-62
    Even in 1955, Morozov still couldn't cope with the fact that the T-34 wasn't his project. The desire to develop the tank, which will be the best on the battlefield, he rushed forward. the T-54 although it wasn't bad, but it wasn't such a blockbuster and in addition him her Karcev modified to a more successful T-55. Morozov therefore, your team says that he wants to develop a completely new tank. He was originally to have a cannon 100 mm caliber with a high muzzle velocity, which was later replaced by a 115mm cannon. In Nizhny Tagil two weapons they used in their prototypes. The object 165 was 100mm and the Object 166 115mm cannon. Object 166 was an incremental development T-55 and in 1962 was included in the production as a tank T-62. Morozov wanted to but the tank, which would be more than just a partial modernization of the T-55. Designed a very compact machine, which had a three-member crew, weighs 36 tonnes and a system for the automatic charging main weapons. The hull was relatively small and flat. Her frontal plates were inclined at an angle of 68 degrees in the upper part and 52 degrees on the bottom. Tank has a new engine 5TD with five cylinders in the arrangement with the contrarotating pistons, which was the de facto engine with ten cylinders. This light and powerful engine was based on the design of railway engines, Fairbanks-Morse, which were imported into the USSR in the second world war in the framework of the program of Lend and Lease. Running gear should be lightweight steel wheels and light strips of steel alloy, whose articles have connections to two pins. The first model with the designation of the Object 430 was made around 1960 and had a 100mm cannon with a high muzzle velocity. He had a number of problems and in addition the British at the time, introduced the famous 105mm cannon type L7, necessitating revision of the proposal for the 115mm cannon type D-68. This weapon was similar to the gun U-5TS on the Object 166, which was now hastily being introduced into the armament under the designation T-62.

    the Problems of T-64 and the arrival of the T-64A
    Morozovův project has passed the short tests, and then was on the Khrushchev's instruction introduced in 1963 into production under the designation T-64. The Tank was very innovative and brought a whole range of untested novelties, which was also his problem, because it was causing a variety of problems. Engine 5TD was very unreliable and was a problem to start in cold weather. Space for the crew was very cramped and its members, moreover, were frowned upon, that are due to the presence of the charging machine only three, because the fourth man was missing during maintenance. Unreliable was even kanon D-68 and an unobstructed charging mechanism should tend to capture the game-playing overalls and stretching it in the breech of the gun. In the first series was made just a limited number of machines that were subsequently shipped to the Far east, where they undergo long-term tests. Morozov he left in 1967 to retirement and at the head office, he is replaced by N. And. Šolin. The place was offered and Karcevovi, but he refused. In Tagil got used to it and had a sick daughter that he didn't want to exhibit a change in environment. In 1969 appeared to be significantly modernized model of the original T-64 with a designation of the Object 434. He had a more reliable engine 5TDF, although the crew would prefer the powerplant of the best families In-2. Replaced was also the main gun. The new machine got in the arsenal cannon D-81 with a calibre of 125 mm. In its time it was the most powerful tank cannon. The Tank was also available as a laser rangefinder. The production was introduced under the designation T-64A.

    Tanks with a missile
    These tanks almost weren't even introduced into the service, because after the cuban missile crisis was Khrushchev determined to change the situation on the battlefield and ordered the military-industrial complex to focus on the rockets and weapons that could hit. Even thinking about termination of tank production. So far the situation didn't come, however, at the end of the fifties all the development agencies should come up with a design of a tank that would shoot rockets. In 1960 Khrushchev presented their proposals. Karcev came with the Object 150, which was the chassis used later for the T-62, on which it was installed flat tower, from which should be launched cruise missiles. Later this machine was introduced as a missile tank destroyer IT-1. Kotin presented the last new project of a heavy tank under the designation Object 277. Reached by but just the fact that Khrushchev finally had to terminate the development of new heavy tanks. 22. October 1962, at the height of the cuban missile crisis, watched Khrushchev three new proposals. Kharkov came with the Object 430 modified to launch cruise missiles, Nižný Tagil with the Object 167, which carried three missiles 9M14 Maljutka and Leningrad with the Object 282, which was tank T-10 with a tilting mechanism for a missile launch. Khrushchev was not satisfied with either proposal. Karcev at least advocated the fact that the army continues to need tanks. In Kharkov after rozpracovávaly two version of the Object 430 armed with anti-tank missile and Tagil continued with the works on the Object 150. Leningrad was clearly informed that further work on the development of a heavy tank will not be tolerated. Even so, the is but Kotinovi managed to maintain production of the tank T-10M up to the year 1966, which was quite a master piece, which is indicative of the influence of Oboronky. With the fall of Khrushchev basically ended the development of missile tanks. But it wasn't about the possibility that the tanks firing guided missiles from their cannons. The direction of the abandoned wasn't.

    Object 167
    In 1967, the u.s. military fully engaged in Vietnam, the Middle east is compared with the results of the six day war and in September 1965 the second indo-pakistani war. The situation in the world had to calm far. The soviet army at the time had a relatively small amount of modern tanks that could possibly face the western tanks, which, according to the soviet point of view, fall into the third generation, i.e. M60A1, Leopard 1, Cheiftain and the AMX-30. The leaders of the tank troops, therefore, address how this lack of remove. After Karcevovi wanted to bring in Tagil have created a tank which will be cheaper, easier and more reliable than the T-64. Karcev has accepted the job, but not one of the main innovations on T-64 he didn't like. At the time when Morozov in Kharkov this tank evolved, worked in Tagil on successors tank T-62, which has been referred to as the Object 167. He had the running gear from the Object 140, the chassis of the T-62 and the engine In-26. Gradually got added to the firing mechanism on three shots Maljutka and the last version had two united helicopter gas turbines, which serve to test the feasibility of the propulsion of the tank's turbine engine. The object 167 to the production but admitted he wasn't. Another model, referred to as the T-62/D-81, represented a modernization of the tank, T-62. The machine had, as the name suggests, the 125mm cannon D-81 with a completely new automatic charging machine, which was easier and safer for the crew, although decreased protection against weapons of mass destruction. Even this machine into production did not go.

    T-72 Tank
    Karcev you then took the best from T-64A, from the Object 167 and the T-62/D-81 and mixed them together. The resulting machine was referred to as a modified T-64A. Should the suspension of the Object 167, and hull, which took over many elements from T-64A. The tower and the automatic charging mechanism came from a T-62/D-81. The inside of the hull was the engine At-45. The Tank was done in January of 1968 and received the designation of the Object 172. The soldiers first responded irritably, as Karcev didn't follow their instructions, but the machine is only revealed as a promising. Using proven technology, and it looked like it will be cheaper and easier to produce and to operate than the T-64. Karcev, therefore, ultimately in the development of continue. Thing but complicated the departure of the director of the tagilského race Ivan Vasilevich Okuněva to retire. Replaced it Ivan Fedorovich Kruťakov, who was Kotinovým of my homies. The new director called Object 172 for a strategic mistake, and generally tried to subordinate its new factory of Leningrad. Karcev had at that time but already quite a big political influence and managed to after a time to push Kruťakova into insignificance. But health Karcevovy daughter is very deteriorated, and he therefore decided to leave in August of 1969, also retired. Replaced him with Valery Nikolayevich Venědiktov, who was still his assistant and the head of the development of the Object 172. Model graduated during five flight the whole series of tests, which successfully passed, and could be in 1973 entered service under the designation T-72.

    gas Turbine engine
    In 1974, they were the leaders of the tank troops somewhat nervous from the situation in which it was in their armament. Tank T-64 regarded as too an idiosyncratic. His production in the version of T-64A while she continued, but still have not removed all the problems, so these machines have been completely reliable and so far there wasn't even a too large amount. In the previous year was introduced by the tank T-72 and nabíhala and production of the export version of the T-72M, but they again seemed to be too conventional and old-fashioned. In the West, moreover, were at that time testing of the tanks that the Soviets would classify as a fourth generation, machine XM1 and Leopard 2. Shouldn't the Soviets have the answer. The soldiers therefore approached the lenigradský the race to develop a more advanced version of the tank, T-72. In the function of the chief engineer here Kotin in 1968, he replaced Nikolai Sergeyevich Popov, who had some experience with turbine engines. This indeed tested the Americans on the prototype of the Chrysler XM1, so Popov was convinced that this is the way. Did not deter him, either, that the turbine was tested in the Leningrad before almost twelve years ago and it led nowhere. In Tagil is tried to be mounted to the Object 167, which then bore the designation of the Object 167T, but it turns out that even relatively operationally efficient helicopter gas turbine engine has starting problems in cold weather and his increased consumption of enough does not compensate for the smaller weight and higher performance compared to pístovému engine.

    T-80
    Popov believed that he will be more successful than its predecessors or competitors. First tried to insert the turbine into the chassis of the T-72. But this model, which had the designation of the Object 219, did not work. Developed a therefore own chassis, which took the best from the chassis T-72 and a modified tower from the T-64A, including the charging slot. This model is then marked as the Object of 219RD. Other adaptations of him, then arose the Object 219-2, which was in 1976, introduced into production and armament under the designation T-80. However, even this tank had problems. The first machines were very unreliable and the engine GTD-1000 had a large consumption, which allowed a range of only to a distance of 285 miles, and while driving down the road and with additional fuel tanks. Which was compared with 500 to 700 kilometers for the other tanks to a precious few. After two years, then came a version of the T-80B, that could carry three drop tanks with a volume of 200 liters.

    Tank of the fourth generation came


    80. years
    The ninth decade was for the Soviet union in the sign of gradual decline. Were a part of that military region. The soviets have criticized the U.S. for the vietnam war, in December of 1979 themselves intervened in Afghanistan. The west reacted quite irritably. Besides the support of the afghan mujahideen to strengthen based on conventional forces in Europe. The quantitative and qualitative. In the field of tank technology have resulted in, inter alia, the introduction of tanks M1 Abrams, M1 IP, M1A1, Leopard 1A4, Leopard 2, Chieftainů with the modernisation of a set of Stillbrew and Challengerů. The soviet response options but were not completely great. Budget a burden on the existence of three races, which were produced in large numbers of tanks with the same destination and similar characteristics. Not a single plant not ready no prototype, which would be equivalent to the new western machinery, let alone surpassed. The war in Afghanistan began gradually require still more spending, and the united states began with the efforts of the Soviet union uzbrojit. The while began to lose intelligence information on western technologies, as Vladimir Vetrov gave the French DST a list of the agents of the soviet technical intelligence. This combination of factors already ineffective system of planned economy could not stand.

    Upgrade - reactive armor, guided missile
    The soviet tank factories in the 80's. years didn't come with a new machine, there were just to more or less of the existing tanks. In 1979 appeared the tank T-64B capable of firing anti-tank missiles 9M122 Cobra from the barrel of a gun. Due to the similarity of the individual components was soon this ability also added to the machines T-80B. In 1983 began to receive tanks T-64B, T-72A and T-80B sets of reactive armour. It succeeded thanks to the fact that the Syrians did in the 1982 capture of an israeli tank M48 with a set of the Blazer (the israeli designation of the Magach). In the year 1985 and have been in the arsenal of the included variants T-72B and T-80U. You have been equipped with a system that allowed from the barrel of a launch laser-guided anti-tank missiles 9M119 Refleks.

    Conversion and a Hammer
    In 1985, it was discontinued production of tanks T-64, namely the version of the T-64BV. They were then carried out anymore just conversions of older machines on the version of the T-64R. In Kharkov started the developers under the Šolinovým leadership development work on the machine marked with Molot (Russian Hammer), but no real outcome these work not. The work of the factory to ensure at least a modernization of the T-80, which consisted in the fact that in the modified chassis T-80U was put diesel engine 6TDF, thus in 1987 there was a version T-80UD. In the following year arrived in Tagil tanks T-72BM, which has a new generation of reactive armor Kontakt-5 and the system of active protection Štora.

    Conclusion


    After the collapse of the USSR
    Already the fall of the Berlin wall and the collapse of the eastern part of the soviet empire brought a slump in demand for other tanks. In Leningrad, meanwhile, was a finished production, which now took place in Omsk, while in the original mansion leaving only the office. Kharkov under the name of Charkiv became part of the renewed independent Ukraine. Nižný Tagil and Omsk continued in production, while hoping that the state made machines they buy, when it's plants produce. These ratios already, but do not continue to be sustainable. The army suffered from lack of funds and the purchases shouldn't have the finances. Machine T-80UM and the T-80UK, which were introduced in 1992, it's hard looking for a buyer. Similarly, the wrong way initially led the reborn T-72BM, which now bears the T-90, respectively, T-90S. Later, however, several hundred machines were able to sell, mainly to India and Algeria. Five hundred of these vehicles included in the arsenal of the Russian army. In 1997, in Omsk presented to the modernization of tank T-80 called Čjornyj orjol (Russian Black eagle). She had a new charging mechanism is located in a recess at the stern of the tower. In the case of the intervention of its structure facing the blast of ammunition outside of the fighting compartment of the vehicle. The project was processed in Omsk without the knowledge of st. Petersburg and, after a time abolished.

    Conclusion
    The influence of Oboronky caused, that in the seventies and eighties produced the three, in principle, very similar tanks with similar indication. Only T-72, in spite of all its flaws, meets the assumptions that the tank placed soviet military science and doctrine. The Tank had fully embody three basic principles that are the essence of tank, mobility, protection and firepower. In addition, but should also be simple, reliable and with long range on its own axis. Tank T-64 was a great leap forward, but this machine was unreliable and difficult to maintain. Tank T-80 had the too great consumption of fuel, which limited his action radius and made it operationally more expensive. Both tanks have a similar automatic charging system. This was evaluated as one of the main causes of the failure of the tanks T-80 in the war in Chechnya. T-72 was a hybrid that combined the best of the old elements with some new, which it was mechanically more reliable. However, even this tank was far from perfect, which demonstrated the failure of its most advanced export version of the T-72M1 against tanks M1 Abrams during operation Desert storm in 1991.








    Source:
    Stephen Sewell: Why Three Tanks?, In: Armor. The Professional Development Bulletin of the Armor Branch, In.With. Army Armor Center, 1998
    Walter E. Fischer: Checking Soviet Armor'with the Threat that NATO, 1988
    Steven J. Zaloga: T-54 and T-55 Main Battle Tanks 1944-2004, Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2004
    Steven J. Zaloga: T-62 Main Battle Tank 1965-2005, Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2009
    Steven J. Zaloga: T-64 Battle Tank. The Cold War's Most Secret Tank, Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2015
    Steven J. Zaloga: T-72 Main Battle Tank 1974-93, Osprey Publishing, Oxford 1993
    Steven J. Zaloga: T-80 Standard Tank. The Soviet Army's Last Armored Champion Osprey Publishing, Oxford 2009
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